Environmental Offences in UK Law

Leading Cases
  • R v CPS Leicester
    • Court of Appeal (Criminal Division)
    • 21 Dic 2006

    The area where a person may indulge in the conduct prohibited by section 4A with impunity are, accordingly, narrowly confined. Such areas are confined to a structure or part of a structure which is occupied as a person's home or other living accommodation. There is no exception in relation to the areas where such an offence may be committed in relation to mere accommodation. The concept of other living accommodation takes its meaning from association with the concept of a person's home.

  • Afovos Shipping Company S.A. v R Pagnan and F.lli
    • House of Lords
    • 27 Ene 1983

    I take it to be a general principle of law not requiring authority that where a person under an obligation to do a particular act has to do it on or before a particular date he has the whole of that day to perform his duty. The question is not when the charterer would cease to be likely to pay in time but when, to quote clause 5, "punctual payment" would have failed. In my opinion this moment must relate to a particular hour, and is not dependent on the modalities of the recipient bank.

  • Hillen and Pettigrew v I.C.I. (Alkali) Ltd
    • House of Lords
    • 04 Jul 1935

  • Intraco Ltd v Notis Shipping Corporation (Bhoja Trader)
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 19 Jun 1981

    Irrevocable letters of credit and bank guarantees given in circumstances such that they are the equivalent of an irrevocable letter of credit have been said to be the life blood of commerce. Thrombosis will occur if, unless fraud is involved, the Courts intervene and thereby disturb the mercantile practice of treating rights thereunder as being the equivalent of cash in hand.

  • Guildford Rural District Council v Fortescue; Guildford Rural District Council v Penny
    • Court of Appeal
    • 23 Mar 1959

    Mr. Megarry contended that the mere intensity of user or occupation could never be relevant. As a general proposition, I am not prepared to accept that argument; nor indeed is it necessary to do so. Mere intensity of user may (as it seems to me; but I must not be taken as deciding this point) affect a definable character of the land and of its use - or one of them.

  • Steamship Mutual Underwriting Association (Bermuda) Ltd v Thakur Shipping Company Ltd (Note)
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 05 Jul 1984

    Justice and convenience in this context is not an abstract conception. It predicates that there is a cause of action in respect of which the court may make an order and the court will be unable to enforce its order unless there is security provided by a Mareva injunction. It seems to me that no such declaratory relief needs a Mareva injunction to support it.

  • Dias Compania Naviera S.A. v Louis Dreyfus Corporation
    • House of Lords
    • 26 Ene 1978

    If laytime ends before the charterer has completed the discharging operation he breaks his contract. The breach is a continuing one; it goes on until discharge is completed and the ship is once more available to the shipowner to use for other voyages. But unless the delay in what is often, though incorrectly, called re-delivery of the ship to the shipowner, is so prolonged as to amount to a frustration of the adventure, the breach by the charterer sounds in damages only.

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Books & Journal Articles
  • Environmental Enforcement Undertakings and Possible Implications: Responsive, Smarter or Rent Seeking?
    • Núm. 76-2, Marzo 2013
    • The Modern Law Review
    Enforcement undertakings have recently been added to the Environment Agency's list of mechanisms available for the enforcement of certain environmental offences. An enforcement undertaking is a wri...
    ...... have recently been added to the Environment Agency’s list of mechanisms available for the enforcement of certain environmental offences. An enforcement undertaking is a written agreement between the regulator and the offender in which the offender proposes to undertake particular ......
  • Green groups launch offensive against negligent directors.
    • Núm. 2004, Junio 2004
    • Financial Management (UK)
    • News Round-Up - Brief Article
    ...Leading environmental bodies are calling for tougher penalties against company directors who are convicted of environmental offences. . In the past year a record number of directors have been found guilty of ......
  • How the construction of women in discourse explains society’s challenge in accepting that females commit sexual offences against children
    • Núm. 9-4, Noviembre 2019
    • Journal of Criminal Psychology
    • 155-165
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way gender and gender roles are socially constructed by those who have experience of females committing sexual offences against children. Desig...
  • Pollution and penalties
    • An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Environmental Policy: Issues in Institutional Design
    • 493-516
    This paper investigates the economic implications of applying different sanctions, notably criminal penalties, the suspension or revocation of licences and administrative fines to environmental reg...
    ...... of licences and administrative fines to environmental regulatory contraven- tions. Using familiar economics of ... of the enforcement process lies a number of criminal offences which provide for prosecution through the criminal courts. ......
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Law Firm Commentaries
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