Journal of Systems and Information Technology

Emerald Group Publishing Limited
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  • Mobile money usage and continuance intention among micro enterprises in an emerging market – the mediating role of agent credibility

    Purpose: Currently, mobile payments have become pervasive in electronic commerce and are steadily increasing in many regions worldwide. In the literature, however, its continued usage among consumers is deemed equivocal, particularly among small businesses. This study uses the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to examine mobile money continuance intention among micro enterprises in an emerging/less-developed economy. This study aims to explore the mediating role of agent credibility on this relationship, given that these agents are contingent actors between service providers and mobile money users. Design/methodology/approach: After a preliminary qualitative enquiry, quantitative data collected from 584 micro enterprises were tested from the UTAUT perspective, using structural equation modelling. Findings: Findings from the study establish the applicability of the UTAUT in explaining the antecedents, motivations and continuance intention of mobile money usage among micro enterprises. Further, beyond their direct effects, the UTAUT conditions have indirect effects on the continuance intention through their effect on perceived agent credibility. Originality/value: The findings provide evidence to issues of research and managerial interest, offering insightful implications to the academic and practitioner communities, respectively.

  • Effects of culture on graphical password image selection and design

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of culture on the cross-cultural design of the recognition-based graphical password (RBG-P) interface as inferred from Chinese and Saudi subjects’ image selections. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a between-group design adopted using two groups of participants from China and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to measure the differences caused by the effects of cultures on graphical password image selections. Three hypotheses have been tested in a four-week long study carried out using two questionnaires and an RBG-P webtool designed for images selection. Findings: The results have indicated that participants are equally biased not only toward their own culture but also depending on their opinions about other cultures. In addition, when creating the password, it has been observed that culture not only influenced the image selection to create the password but also have an effect on the sequence of the images forming the password. Research limitations/implications: Appropriately used image selection differences can be used appropriately in cross-cultural designs that will lead to better development of culturally adaptive interfaces that will boost the security posture of RBG-P authentication. Practical implications: Some RBG-P interfaces that are produced outside the designer’s culture may suffer the effects of cultural differences. Hence, to incorporate culture in the interface, authentication systems within applications should be flexible by designing images that fit the culture in which the software will be used. To this end, access control interface testing should also be carried out in the environmental and cultural context in which it is will be used. Originality/value: This paper provides useful information for international developers who develop cross-cultural usable secure designs. In such environments, the cross-culturally designs may have significant effects on the acceptability and adoption adaptation of the interface to multi-cultural settings.

  • A multi-agent system for distributed smartphone sensing cycling in smart cities

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a distributed smartphone sensing-enabled system, which assumes an intelligent transport signaling (ITS) infrastructure that operates traffic lights in a smart city (SC). The system is able to handle priorities between groups of cyclists (crowd-cycling) and traffic when approaching traffic lights at road junctions. Design/methodology/approach: The system takes into consideration normal probability density function (PDF) and analytics computed for a certain group of cyclists (i.e. crowd-cycling). An inference model is built based on real-time spatiotemporal data of the cyclists. As the system is highly distributed – both physically (i.e. location of the cyclists) and logically (i.e. different threads), the problem is treated under the umbrella of multi-agent systems (MAS) modeling. The proposed model is experimentally evaluated by incorporating a real GPS trace data set from the SC of Melbourne, Australia. The MAS model is applied to the data set according to the quantitative and qualitative criteria adopted. Cyclists’ satisfaction (CS) is defined as a function, which measures the satisfaction of the cyclists. This is the case where the cyclists wait the least amount of time at traffic lights and move as fast as they can toward their destination. ITS system satisfaction (SS) is defined as a function that measures the satisfaction of the ITS system. This is the case where the system serves the maximum number of cyclists with the fewest transitions between the lights. Smart city satisfaction (SCS) is defined as a function that measures the overall satisfaction of the cyclists and the ITS system in the SC based on CS and SS. SCS defines three SC policies (SCP), namely, CS is maximum and SS is minimum then the SC is cyclist-friendly (SCP1), CS is average and SS is average then the SC is equally cyclist and ITS system friendly (SCP2) and CS is minimum and SS is maximum then the SC is ITS system friendly (SCP3). Findings: Results are promising toward the integration of the proposed system with contemporary SCs, as the stakeholders are able to choose between the proposed SCPs according to the SC infrastructure. More specifically, cyclist-friendly SCs can adopt SCP1, SCs that treat cyclists and ITS equally can adopt SCP2 and ITS friendly SCs can adopt SCP3. Originality/value: The proposed approach uses internet connectivity available in modern smartphones, which provide users control over the data they provide to us, to obviate the installation of additional sensing infrastructure. It extends related study by assuming an ITS system, which turns traffic lights green by considering the normal PDF and the analytics computed for a certain group of cyclists. The inference model is built based on the real-time spatiotemporal data of the cyclists. As the system is highly distributed – both physically (i.e. location of the cyclists) and logically (i.e. different threads), the system is treated under the umbrella of MAS. MAS has been used in the literature to model complex systems by incorporating intelligent agents. In this study, the authors treat agents as proxy threads running in the cloud, as they require high computation power not available to smartphones.

  • Impact of social experience on customer purchase decision in the social commerce context

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factor of social experience influencing an individual’s purchase decision in the social commerce (SC) environment by proposing a model developed based on the social impact theory. The proposed model consists of the number, closeness and tie strength of the influencing factor and the receiver. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 288 responses were collected from Indonesian SC users to validate the theoretical model, which consists of perceived herd behavior, peer communication, emotional support, parasocial interaction and subjective norms. This study also explores the moderating effects of gender, age, experiences and occupations on the direct effect of model variables, which affect the individual’s intention to purchase in SC. Findings: The results of this study showed that parasocial interaction is the strongest determinant of intention to purchase in SC, followed by perceived herd behavior and peer communication. However, the direct effect of subjective norms and emotional support were found insignificant in this study. For moderating effects, only gender and occupation were significant in terms of the immediate effect of peer communication, perceived herd behavior and subjective norms on intention to purchase. Originality/value: The study contributes to theory in the form of insight on immediate effect and the exploratory investigation of moderating effects. It also contributes to practice by suggesting several practical actions based on the findings designed to achieve the objective of improving customers’ intention to purchase in SC.

  • Factors that affect acceptance and use of information systems within the Maritime industry in developing countries. The case of Ghana

    Purpose: Although information and communication technology has become a significant driver for organizational efficiency and effectiveness, there is inadequate empirical research on technology acceptance in the maritime industry especially in developing countries. Literature on how behavior and attitude influence technology acceptance is non-existent. This study therefore aims to augment existing literature on technology acceptance in developing countries with particular emphasis on the maritime industry. Design/methodology/approach: The study extended the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model to investigate the factors that affect the acceptance and use of INTTRA: a multi-carrier booking and shipping system designed to facilitate ocean trade worldwide. Responses from 198 subjects, collected through a questionnaire, were analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling. Findings: The research model confirmed significant influences of performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, anxiety and attitude towards use on users’ intention to use INTTRA. In contrast, social influence, effort expectancy and self-efficacy did not significantly influence intention to use. Although these findings confirm some proposed relationships in the UTAUT model, it contradicted the cultural dimension argument that developing countries with higher degrees of femininity pay less attention to performance and high attention to social influence. Research limitations/implications: The study contributes to knowledge in the area of information systems and technology acceptance in developing countries. Particularly, it seeks to expand literature on adoption within the maritime industry. The study is limited to the sample used for the study, as it used participants from only one country. However, the findings are not generalized for the entire maritime industry but rather Ghana. Originality/value: The originality of the study is derived from the provision of literature on adoption within the maritime industry in developing countries. It also provided evidence that challenges existing knowledge on characteristics of countries that exhibits high level of femininity culture as proposed by Hofstede.

  • Tax compliance as a driver for adopting information technologies – effect on competencies development and on competitive advantages

    Purpose: The adoption of information systems (IS) by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) leads to the acquisition of new competencies and relative advantages. In some cases, the decision to adopt IS results from legal obligations that companies must comply with. This paper aims to assess the effect of the mandatory digital transmission of documents to the tax and customs authority on the decision to adopt IS by SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a research model to analyze the antecedents of IS adoption and the relationship between that adoption and the development of new competencies and the consequent relative advantages. Based on the data from 94 European SMEs, this paper tests the research model with a partial least squares approach. Findings: The findings show that companies decide to adopt IS due to their obligations for tax compliance. However, while some companies decide to adopt basic IS just to comply with the transmission of documents, others decided to implement more complex systems to satisfy wider company needs. Research limitations/implications: Due to time constraints, the characteristics of the respondents such as their sector of activity, the sensitivity of companies and entrepreneurs to IS, their geographic distribution or years of activity were not studied. As mentioned above it is important to investigate further the characteristics of the companies and their differentiation factors between those who only invest to reduce costs and those that see IS as a differentiating factor. This factor could be a source of information to study the company and its environment that is very useful in increasingly competitive markets. Practical implications: This study is important because it shows managers the possible ways of thinking that can guide their investment decisions and whether these will lead them to face future challenges. Originality/value: For researchers, this paper shows how a change in the law may have an effect on decisions to adopt technology and how existing theories can be applied to study the effects of changes in the law.

  • Factors affecting the adoption of cloud of things. The case study of Indian small and medium enterprises

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the significant factors affecting the adoption of Cloud of Things (CoT) by Indian small and medium-sized enterprises, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Significant factors that impact CoT implementation were identified through a detailed literature survey. A conceptual framework and hypotheses were proposed for linking the significant factors so identified, namely, cost saving, relative advantage, sharing and collaboration, reliability, security and privacy, technical issues and adoption intention. The data were collected from 270 Indian SMEs using an online survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed model. Findings: It was observed that factors such as “sharing and collaboration”, “cost saving” and “relative advantage” had a positive influence on CoT adoption. Findings of the study also supported the hypothesis that “security and privacy” were the prime concerns for CoT adoption. Research limitations/implications: Sample coverage across different geographical areas with qualitative data can be helpful. The SEM methodology is only capable of verifying linear relationships; to counter this, a hybrid approach with tools such as artificial neural network and multiple linear regression can be used. Practical implications: This study intends to guide the managers of SMEs, cloud service providers and regulatory organisations for formulating an effective strategy to adopt CoT. It may be noted that CoT is the prime building block of Industry 4.0 and SMEs will benefit from government support for the same. Originality/value: This paper highlights the influence of factors on the adoption intention of CoT with a focus on the SMEs of a developing country like India.

  • A two-stage structural equation modeling-neural network approach for understanding and predicting the determinants of m-government service adoption

    Purpose: Despite the widespread use of mobile government (m-government) services in developed countries, the adoption and acceptance of m-government services among citizens in developing countries is relatively low. The purpose of this study is to explore the most critical determinants of acceptance and use of m-government services in a developing country context. Design/methodology/approach: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) extended with perceived mobility and mobile communication services (MCS) was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected from 216 m-government users across Bangladesh and analyzed in two stages. First, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to identify significant determinants affecting users' acceptance of m-government services. In the second stage, a neural network model was used to validate SEM results and determine the relative importance of the determinants of acceptance of m-government services. Findings: The results show that facilitating conditions and performance expectancy are the two important precedents of behavioral intention to use m-government services, and performance expectancy mediates the relationship between MCS, mobility and the intention to use m-government services. Research limitations/implications: Academically, this study extended and validated the underlying concept of UTAUT to capture the adoption behavior of individuals in a different cultural context. In particular, MCS might be the most critical antecedent towards mobile application studies. From a practical perspective, this study may provide valuable guidelines to government policymakers and system developers towards the development and effective implementation of m-government systems. Originality/value: This study has contributed to the existing, but limited, literature on m-government service adoption in the context of a developing country. The predictive modeling approach is an innovative approach in the field of technology adoption.

  • How knowledge sharing leads to innovative work behaviour. A moderating role of transformational leadership

    Purpose: Studies have examined the influence of knowledge-sharing factors on attitudes and intentions to share knowledge; thus, there is a need to add to the limited research to examine individuals’ actual knowledge-sharing behaviour (KSB). Drawing upon the social cognitive theory (SCT) and transformational leadership, this study aims to develop a new research model which modifies the standard SCT model and augments it with other theories to examine academics’ KSBs. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaire surveys based on literature and pilot study were conducted with 785 academic staff from four Vietnamese public universities. This study applied structural equation modelling to test the proposed research model and hypotheses. Findings: The findings show that environmental factors (subjective norms, trust) and personal factors (knowledge self-efficacy, enjoyment in helping others) had positive impacts on KSB; KSB had a strongly positive effect on innovative behaviour; and transformational leadership positively moderated the effects of subjective norms, trust and knowledge self-efficacy on KSB. Interestingly, psychological ownership of knowledge was found to have insignificant associations with KSB. Practical implications: The study findings can be used by university leaders, academic staff and researchers in other similar contexts. Originality/value: Until now, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, no studies have applied SCT as a primary lens, in which transformational leadership positioned in a focal behaviour also affected KSB, to investigate research on KSB in organisations, especially in institutions of higher education.

  • FLORA: a hierarchical fuzzy system for online accommodation review analysis

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce a hierarchical fuzzy system for an online review analysis named FLORA. FLORA enables tourists to decide their destination without reading numerous reviews from experienced tourists. It summarizes reviews and visualizes them through a hierarchical structure. The visualization does not only present overall quality of an accommodation, but it also presents the condition of the bed, hospitality of the front desk receptionist and much more in a snap. Design/methodology/approach: FLORA is a complete system which acquires online reviews, analyzes sentiments, computes feature scores and summarizes results in a hierarchical view. FLORA is designed to use an overall score, rated by real tourists as a baseline for accuracy comparison. The accuracy of FLORA has achieved by a novel sentiment analysis process (as part of a knowledge acquisition engine) based on semantic analysis and a novel rating technique, called hierarchical fuzzy calculation, in the knowledge inference engine. Findings: The performance comparison of FLORA against related work has been assessed in two aspects. The first aspect focuses on review analysis with binary format representation. The results reveal that the hierarchical fuzzy method, with probability weighting of FLORA, is achieved with the highest values in precision, recall and F-measure. The second aspect looks at review analysis with a five-point rating scale rating by comparing with one of the most advanced research methods, called fuzzy domain ontology. The results reveal that the hierarchical fuzzy method, with probability weighting of FLORA, returns the closest results to the tourist-defined rating. Research limitations/implications: This research advances knowledge of online review analysis by contributing a novel sentiment analysis process and a novel rating technique. The FLORA system has two limitations. First, the reviews are based on individual expression, which is an arbitrary distinction and not always grammatically correct. Consequently, some opinions may not be extracted because the context free grammar rules are insufficient. Second, natural languages evolve and diversify all the time. Many emerging words or phrases, including idioms, proverbs and slang, are often used in online reviews. Thus, those words or phrases need to be manually updated in the knowledge base. Practical implications: This research contributes to the tourism business and assists travelers by introducing comprehensive and easy to understand information about each accommodation to travelers. Although the FLORA system was originally designed and tested with accommodation reviews, it can also be used with reviews of any products or services by updating data in the knowledge base. Thus, businesses, which have online reviews for their products or services, can benefit from the FLORA system. Originality/value: This research proposes a FLORA system which analyzes sentiments from online reviews, computes feature scores and summarizes results in a hierarchical view. Moreover, this work is able to use the overall score, rated by real tourists, as a baseline for accuracy comparison. The main theoretical implication is a novel sentiment analysis process based on semantic analysis and a novel rating technique called hierarchical fuzzy calculation.

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