Personnel Review

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  • Effect of middle managers’ cultural intelligence on firms’ innovation performance. Knowledge sharing as mediator and collaborative climate as moderator

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral dimensions of the middle managers’ cultural intelligence (CQ) on firms’ innovation performance in a context of cultural diversity and the mediating role of knowledge sharing in this relationship. The author deepens the analysis by exploring the moderating role of collaborative climate (CC) on the link between CQ and KS. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted on 186 foreign middle managers working in Tunisian firms. The data analysis was performed via the partial least square method. Findings: The results revealed that middle managers’ metacognitive CQ has a positive effect on KS, which in turn enhances firms’ innovation performance. In this line, KS partially mediates the relationship between metacogntive CQ and innovation performance. Findings also indicate that CC moderates the link between three dimensions of CQ, namely metacognitive, behavioral and motivational CQs and KS. Originality/value: The paper sheds lights on the contribution of middle managers’ CQ and the CC within firms to the KS and innovation performance in a context of cultural diversity. At the best of the author’s knowledge, the links among these variables had not been empirically examined, especially involving samples of middle managers. This study offers important insights for managers by providing them with tools to improve KS and firms’ innovation.

  • When investment in employee development promotes knowledge sharing behavior in an uncertain post-Soviet context

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of perceived investment in employee development (PIED) on knowledge sharing (KS) behavior by examining the mediating role of psychological capital and moderating role of organizational identification. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were used to collect data from 340 employees from largest MNCs working in Kazakhstan. Findings: The results show that psychological capital mediates the relationship between PIED and knowledge sharing behavior (KSB). Moreover, it was found that organizational identification moderates the association between individuals’ psychological capital and their KSB. The mediated moderation analyses supported the hypothesized model. Originality/value: This paper contributes to a more complete understanding of how investment in employee development may support or build employees’ psychological capital which in turn facilitates KS.

  • Mediating effect of team trust on the influence of top management team (TMT) processes against HRM decision quality and satisfaction performance

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating role of top management team (TMT) team trust in examining the relationship between team processes (internal and external) and human resource management (HRM) decision performance (quality and satisfaction) in the context of the People’s Republic of China. Design/methodology/approach: The sample data of this study include 524 team members from 76 TMTs in east China’s Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui provinces. IBM SPSS AMOS 22.0 software was employed for the data analysis. Findings: The study finds that TMT internal and external processes have significant positive effects on HRM decision quality and satisfaction. The study further finds that TMT team trust partially mediates the relationship between TMT processes (internal and external processes) and HRM decision quality and satisfaction. Practical implications: This research provides useful insights into the role of TMT team trust in enhancing managerial decision performance. Originality/value: This study is among the limited studies that explore the influence of team trust in the relationship between TMT processes (internal and external processes) and HRM decision quality and satisfaction among TMTs in China. This study has extended TMT knowledge in mainstream management with guidelines on how to enhance organizational decision performance.

  • Performance appraisal systems and public sector efficiency in small island developing states. The case of Fiji

    Purpose: There is extant literature on performance appraisal systems (PAS) in public sector globally; however, most of the literature focuses on PAS in public sector in large developed and large developing countries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is scant literature on PAS in the public sector of small developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to fill the research gap and analyse employee perceptions of the annual performance appraisal (APA) system and its implications in the Fiji’s public sector. It examines the APA more specifically in the case study of Ministry of Health and Medical Services in Fiji. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach was undertaken and information collected from each research method was triangulated to ensure the reliability and validity of the findings. Findings: This study found that the APA system shows promise of delivering on the expected outcomes for PAS. Similarly, staff morale was found to increase while employee behaviour improved with employee involvement and simple key performance indicators. However, much work needs to be done at the macro, meso and micro level of policy planning and implementation in order to ensure the success of APA. Research limitations/implications: The limitations of this research are that it is based solely on Fiji’s experience and future research could expand this study to other developing country contexts, especially small island states. Originality/value: After conducting a literature review on developed nations and research in a small developing country (Fiji), this paper produces two models: a PAS model in the developed country context and another in Fiji’s small developing country context. This paper contributes to the existing literature of PAS in the public sector and more specifically in the context of developing small island countries.

  • Linking organizational trust and performance through ambidexterity

    Purpose: The literature provides mixed empirical evidence on the trust–performance relationship. The purpose of this paper is to shed additional light on this relationship, using organizational ambidexterity as an explanatory variable. Design/methodology/approach: A structural equation technique was used to examine survey data obtained from 377 Spanish organic agro-food industries. Findings: The results obtained provide support to show that organizational ambidexterity has a mediating role in the relationship between organizational trust and firm performance, in the organic agro-food industry. Research limitations/implications: This study used a sample taken from only one industry and country. Future research could expand the model to other countries and industries. Practical implications: This study suggests that managers could use tools to enhance organizational trust that would help to improve firm performance, given that trust can cause employees to adopt behaviors related to ambidexterity. Therefore, managers can use trust as a mechanism to encourage more stable relationships, increase the transfer of existing knowledge, facilitate experimentation and express ideas to promote organizational ambidexterity, thus benefiting firm performance. Originality/value: This research paper offers a new insight into how ambidexterity affects the organizational trust-firm performance relationship. Even though there is growing theoretical importance given to the concepts of trust and ambidexterity, the empirical evidence that demonstrates how both variables are related to firm performance, especially in emerging sectors, is scarce.

  • Motivations, work–family enrichment and job satisfaction: an indirect effects model

    Purpose: Increasingly, leaders are faced with complex, difficult and demanding situations that challenge their very sense of self, including their workplace wellbeing. It has been suggested that this challenge can be mitigated for leaders by pursuing goals and activities that reflect their beliefs, interests and values. As such, leaders whose motivations reflect intrinsic and self-congruent beliefs and values are likely to experience beneficial wellbeing, yet, reviewing this from a self-determination theory (SDT) lens, the authors find this assertion remains to be fully tested. Concurrently, the work–family enrichment (WFE) literature highlights that potential positive synergies exist between work and home. The authors further argue that this synergy may also provide greater insight and understanding into the quality of leaders’ motivation and wellbeing, and as such also requires attention. As such, the purpose of this paper is to examine the path to wellbeing for leaders and includes leaders’ “whole lives” (including enrichment) and not just their work lives (motivations). Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research including two studies of 386 junior/senior leaders and 205 CEOs, investigated the role of motivation as defined by SDT and WFE towards leaders’ job satisfaction. Hypotheses were tested using SEM in AMOS to assess the direct and meditational effects of the study variables. Findings: A partial mediation model was found to best fit the data for both studies. In study 1, the effects of self-determined motivation dimensions on job satisfaction were fully mediated by WFE and family–work enrichment (FWE). However, the non-self-determined dimensions of SDT motivations were directly and negatively related to job satisfaction and enrichment. In study 2, self-determined forms of motivation were positively related to WFE and FWE and job satisfaction, while only WFE was positively related to job satisfaction. The non-self-determined dimensions of SDT motivations were directly and negatively related to WFE and job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: Overall, both studies show that the influence of motivations on job satisfaction of leaders is better understood through enrichment. As such organisations are encouraged to enhance both leader’s motivations, and enrichment, in order to facilitate a path to job satisfaction. Originality/value: This paper is the first to test over two studies and levels of leadership, motivation and enrichment for leaders. As such this paper provides a novel “path” to wellbeing that includes aspects of the leaders’ motivation, as well as the importance of leaders’ enrichment and home domain. Overall the authors suggest that leaders’ “whole” lives play a role in their job satisfaction, and this is important to understand as the authors try to resource leaders, who work in an increasingly demanding workplace environment.

  • Empowerment and organizational identification. The mediating role of leader–member exchange and the moderating role of leader trustworthiness

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the mechanism through which perceived empowerment practices in a firm influence employees’ organizational identification. Specifically, the authors posit the mediating role of leader‒member exchange (LMX) and the moderating role of leader trustworthiness in the relationship. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected through survey from 236 white-collar employees working in 20 private companies in Turkey. The authors tested the model using hierarchical regression and conditional process analysis. Findings: Findings of this study are as follows: first, LMX mediates the relationship between empowerment practices and organizational identification, second, leader integrity, a dimension of trustworthiness, moderates the relationship between empowerment practices and LMX and the relationship between LMX and organizational identification and, third, leader integrity moderates the indirect effect of empowerment practices on organizational identification via LMX. These direct and indirect effects are stronger when leaders have higher integrity than when they have lower integrity. Originality/value: This study enhances the understanding of the mechanism through which empowerment practices influence employees’ organizational identification.

  • Perish in gossip? Nonlinear effects of perceived negative workplace gossip on job performance

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the curvilinear relationship between perceived negative workplace gossip and target employee’s task performance, and the moderating roles of perceived organizational support (POS). Design/methodology/approach: Using a sample of 275 supervisor–subordinate dyads in a two-wave survey, the authors adopted a hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypotheses. Findings: The results revealed that there is a U-shaped relationship between perceived negative workplace gossip and task performance. Moreover, POS moderated the curvilinear relationship such that the curvilinear relationship is more pronounced among those with lower POS. Research limitations/implications: This study does not explore the mediating mechanism of how perceived negative gossip affects the target’s task performance. Moreover, as this research was conducted in a Chinese context, the question of the generalizability of the findings calls for more attention. Practical implications: When the negative gossip is still in its early stages, managers should realize the potential threat to target employees and take measures to stop and minimize negative gossiping and rumormongering. Furthermore, managers should do their best to find the optimal levels of organizational support for target employees. Originality/value: This study is among the first effort to understand how perceived negative gossip can influence the target employees’ performance by proposing and demonstrating a nonlinear relationship. Moreover, by illuminating how POS plays a role in the curvilinear relationship between negative gossip and task performance, the authors not only complement but also extend the literature on workplace gossip and organizational support.

  • Promoting employee job crafting at work: the roles of motivation and team context

    Purpose: Despite receiving much attention in recent job design literature, job crafting research has neglected motivational and multilevel perspectives, limiting the understanding of how to foster employee job crafting. Drawing on job crafting and self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore individual- and team-level predictors and the mechanisms involved in employees’ job change behaviors. The authors propose that employees’ intrinsic motivation and two team-level properties – team knowledge sharing and trust – have important roles to play. Design/methodology/approach: The multilevel data were collected from 311 employees from 62 work teams in Korean companies. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used. A supplementary data collected from 162 individuals working in the USA were used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that intrinsic motivation and team knowledge sharing are positively related to job crafting. In addition, intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between team knowledge and individual job crafting. Finally, team trust was shown to play a cross-level moderating role, strengthening the positive relationship between employees’ intrinsic motivation and job crafting. Originality/value: Applying motivational and multilevel perspectives, this paper uncovers the roles of individual motivation and team context in fostering employee job crafting. This study helps to extend the theoretical domains of job crafting and provides practical insights into how to promote employees’ job crafting.

  • Career dynamics in India. A two-wave study of career orientations and employability of graduates

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a career-orientation and employability-focused model in the Indian context in order to understand: factors influencing employability of graduates factors influencing expected salary gain. Design/methodology/approach: The researchers adopted a quantitative method using a two-wave survey with a sample of MBA graduates from two prominent business schools in India. The total sample size for Wave I was 250, while for Wave II it was 161. The model was tested via hierarchical regression with MBA contribution as a moderator. Findings: Results indicate the relevance of protean career orientation (PCO) to reaching career outcomes such as employability, with MBA contribution as a moderator. Practical implications: The study provides a new perspective that would enhance graduates’ employability. This makes it relevant for both individuals and higher education institutions as it will help both individuals and higher education institutions to attain competitiveness at the national level. Originality/value: The career theory was extended to the diverse socio-cultural and economic context of India, representing the BRICS economy.

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