The Journal of Adult Protection
- Emerald Group Publishing Limited
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 22-2, April 2020
- Nbr. 22-1, December 2019
- Nbr. 21-6, November 2019
- Nbr. 21-5, October 2019
- Nbr. 21-4, August 2019
- Nbr. 21-3, May 2019
- Nbr. 21-2, March 2019
- Nbr. 21-1, March 2019
- Nbr. 20-5/6, December 2018
- Nbr. 20-3/4, August 2018
- Nbr. 20-2, April 2018
- Nbr. 20-1, February 2018
- Nbr. 19-6, December 2017
- Nbr. 19-5, October 2017
- Nbr. 19-4, August 2017
- Nbr. 19-3, June 2017
- Nbr. 19-2, April 2017
- Nbr. 19-1, February 2017
- Nbr. 18-6, December 2016
- Nbr. 18-5, October 2016
- The demographics of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities: findings from a national database
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the UK demographics of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities to inform effective safeguarding practice. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of all cases of forced marriage reported to the UK Government’s Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) between 2009 and 2015. Findings: People with learning disabilities are at five times greater risk of forced marriage than people without learning disabilities. Men and women with learning disabilities are equally likely to be forced to marry, whereas amongst the general population, women are more likely than men to be forced to marry. Patterns of ethnicity, geographic location within the UK and reporters are the same for people with and without learning disabilities. Research limitations/implications: The analysis is based on cases reported to the FMU, and for some cases, data held was incomplete. More importantly, many cases go unreported and so the FMU data does not necessarily reflect all cases of forced marriage in the UK. Practical implications: Forced marriage of people with learning disabilities is a safeguarding issue. Practitioners across health, education, criminal justice and social care need to better understand the risk of forced marriage for people with learning disabilities. Links to practice resources developed as part of the wider project are provided. Originality/value: This is the first time that researchers have been given access to FMU data and the first time that a statistical analysis of cases of forced marriage involving someone with a learning disability have been analysed.
- People with an intellectual disability: under-reporting sexual violence
Purpose: People with an intellectual disability are much more likely to be sexually violated and the violation is less likely to be reported. Despite this being high-lighted at least 3 decades ago and improvements in both safeguarding and national reporting processes, under-reporting remains a problem. This paper explored under-reporting alongside prevention possibilities using safeguarding alerts raised in a Community Learning Disability Team within a UK NHS trust. Design/methodology/approach: Using a combination of authentic but anonymised case vignettes and descriptive data drawn from the safeguarding team, under-reporting was examined through the lens of an ecological model. Safeguarding alerts raised in a particular year were compared with the number expected if all (estimated) cases of abuse were disclosed and reported. Findings: Only 4.4 per cent of expected abuse cases were reported to the team, which is lower than the reporting level the authors had expected from the literature. There is evidence in the literature of the under-reporting of sexual assault for all kinds of people. Arguably, the implications of under-reporting for PwID are even more traumatic. Research limitations/implications: Constraints included the lack of standardisation in data collection within the statutory services that report to the Birmingham Safeguarding Adults Board. One key recommendation is that the national provider of data for the NHS in the UK requires more complex and standardised audit information that would allow each local authority to benchmark their practice against a higher protection standard. Another recommendation is that compliance to quality standards sits within a comprehensive strategy. Originality/value: This paper explored the extent to which the previously documented under-reporting concern remains an issue. Certainly eye-balling safeguarding compliance data in the NHS organisation we worked in led us to a concern that reporting might be even lower than implied in the literature. This together with a renewed spot-light on sexual violence (e.g, NHS England, 2018) led us to decide that it was timely to re-examine the problem.
- Negotiating meaning within healthcare to improve suicide prevention
Purpose: A framework for “negotiating meaning” was applied to a healthcare service to achieve a collaboratively developed suicide prevention clinical pathway. Design/methodology/approach: The framework was originally developed during a previous study that drew on the theory of philosophical hermeneutics to enable a researcher to better understand the experience of older people. This approach was then applied to a healthcare setting and the development of a suicide prevention clinical pathway. Clinical front-line staff engaged effectively and meaningfully with each other, consumers, family members and management to develop a clinical guideline that reflected best practice and improved care provision. An additional outcome involved establishing a supportive culture in which the shared meanings underpinning the experience of working with people expressing suicidality were explored. Findings: An evidence-based suicide prevention clinical pathway was developed collaboratively with clinicians taking the lead in the process, and leading to the agreement being reached on the final guideline and processes established. The negotiation process brought the perspectives of the different parties together enabling the sharing of underlying meaning inherent in the experience of losing a consumer tragically to suicide. A commitment to taking joint action to reduce the likelihood of further incidents occurring also grew from the shared understanding that developed. Originality/value: This paper describes the approach that was applied to facilitate engagement processes between clinicians and service management that also challenged the power differentials that usually exist within healthcare and led to positive engagement that supported the safety and quality agenda.
- A strengths-based approach and safeguarding adults – are they compatible?
Purpose: This paper aims to stimulate discussion. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a personal reflection and is not a research paper; there is not therefore a design or methodology that was used in its writing. Findings: While it may initially appear that a strength-based approach is incompatible with safeguarding adults, it can be a valuable long-term tool in supporting adults who have been abused or self-neglected. Research limitations/implications: The piece is a personal reflection and therefore not based on research but it does highlight the need for further research to develop tools to facilitate the interface between safeguarding and a strengths-based approach. Practical implications: The need to recognise when a strengths-based approach is and is not appropriate in safeguarding adults. Originality/value: The author is not aware of a similar consideration of the interface between safeguarding adults practice and a strengths-based approach.
- Reframing financial abuse of parishioners: an analysis of a Church of England disciplinary tribunal hearing regarding Rev. Karl Wray
Purpose: Traditional understandings of financial abuse are limited to particular situations and people who have close access to vulnerable adults. This paper aims to add to a debate that intends to push the boundaries of the understanding of financial abuse further. In particular, it seeks to add to the understanding of what financial abuse might look like and who the perpetrators of such abuse can be. In so doing, it seeks to offer greater protection to the vulnerable. Design/methodology/approach: Focusing on exploring the minutes of Church of England disciplinary tribunals, held to provide accountability for clergy, this paper considers how the church seeks to represent and construct the victims of financial abuse. Findings: The paper identifies that the victims of financial abuse are whitewashed out of the tribunal minutes and discovers that the disciplinary tribunal is solely concerned with the financial loss afforded by the church. This discovery offers a new context in which it is possible to explore the competing interest in, what has been regarded as, the “legitimate assets” of older parishioners. It provides an example of how organisations and individuals compete for them. Originality/value: This paper adds to the debate about the everyday nature of financial abuse and when and where it might take place. It provides an opportunity to reconsider potential offenders and the means by which abuse might be reduced. In exploring how the financial abuse of potentially vulnerable people can be reframed so that it is hidden by process and procedure, this paper offers an insight into the means by which it is possible to promote transparency and greater accountability.
- Safeguarding in Social Work Practice: A Lifespan Approach
- The sound of silence: evidence of the continuing under reporting of abuse in care homes
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present findings from two research projects undertaken between 2015 and 2019 that reveal continued underreporting and sometimes active concealment of abuse in private sector care homes for older people in England. Design/methodology/approach: An anonymously completed questionnaire was used among newly appointed staff in 11 newly opened care homes to elicit both quantitative and qualitative data relating to the reporting of occurrences of abuse within the care homes in which they had previously worked. In total, 391 questionnaires in total were returned, 285 of which indicated that respondents had witnessed the perpetration of abuse on at least one occasion. Findings: A significant number of respondents indicated their awareness of acts of abuse that had not been reported within the care home(s) in which they had worked, or externally to the appropriate authorities. Some respondents were aware that where occurrences of abuse had been reported within care homes no subsequent action was taken, or that external authorities were not always involved in responses to abuse. A significant number of respondents described strategies that had been used to deter reports of abuse to external agencies and to conceal its occurrence from the statutory regulator and service commissioners. Research limitations/implications: Though the research draws upon the experiences of only 285 questionnaire respondents who had witnessed episodes of abuse, data suggest that a significant proportion of abuse in care homes remains unreported. Originality/value: The research has revealed experiences of continued underreporting and concealment of abuse among staff in private sector care homes. Findings indicate that a strengthening of incentives and protections extended to the staff who should report abuse are essential, and that changes to current methods of external scrutiny to which care homes are subject are required.
- A joined up approach to safeguarding and personalisation: a framework for practice in multi‐agency decision‐making
Purpose: This paper aims to provide a framework from which practitioners can develop a partnership approach to multi‐agency decision‐making. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have drawn on the direct experiences of social work practitioners currently involved in safeguarding activity and...
- A pilot project: evaluating community nurses' knowledge and understanding of the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007
Purpose: This paper's aim is to evaluate understanding and knowledge of the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 in a sample of community nurses working in learning disability services in Scotland. Design/methodology/approach: Ten community nurses who worked in learning disability...
- A profile of A Dignified Revolution
- A review of factors which potentially influence decisions in adult safeguarding investigations
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to look at safeguarding documentation in relation to 50 adult safeguarding files for the period April 2010 to March 2011. This was followed up with semi-structured interviews with a small number of Designated Officers whose role it is to screen referrals and...
- A study of adult protection referrals in two local authorities: an overview of findings for managers and practitioners
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the key findings from a study of adult protection referrals collected by two English local authorities during 1998‐2005. Design/methodology/approach: Referrals were analysed for patterns relating to risk with client level data supplemented by...
- Abuse in mental health services: some theoretical considerations
The mental health field is viewed by some as reluctant to tackle the problem of abuse. While ‘adult protection’ offers one way forward, the authors of this paper caution against over‐enthusiastic borrowing from this paradigm. Instead they argue that mental health services will only become...
- Adult protection and effective action in tackling violence and hostility against disabled people: some tensions and challenges
Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the sensible management of risk for disabled people, which can turn into disproportionate steps to attempt to completely eliminate risk, leading to diminished opportunities across life. Instincts to protect are heightened in the context of disabled people as...
- Adult protection in Scotland in 1857 and in 2015: what have we learned?
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to compare recent developments in adult protection legislation, policy and practice in Scotland in 2015 with the first attempts at protection of adults at risk of harm, in 1857-1862, with a particular focus on people with learning disabilities. Design/methodo...
- Adult safeguarding in Northern Ireland: prevention, protection, partnership
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline and critique the current model of adult safeguarding in Northern Ireland (NI). Design/methodology/approach: The paper offers a critical analysis of adult safeguarding, legislation, policy and practice. Insights are offered from the Regional Adult...
- An evaluation of adult safeguarding outcomes’ focused recording in the context of Making Safeguarding Personal
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact in one local authority of Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) upon the recording of outcomes in safeguarding interventions. To determine to what extent person centred outcomes were in evidence. Design/methodology/approach: – Analysis of ...