Journal of Asia Business Studies

Emerald Group Publishing Limited
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  • CSFs for Six Sigma implementation: a systematic literature review

    Purpose: The success or failure of any Six Sigma program/project depends on some critical factors. The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore critical success factors (CSFs) of Six Sigma from an extensive literature review of research articles published in the context of Six Sigma and propose a categorized list of vital CSFs. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used is the systematic analysis of 64 different research publications and case studies from 34 different journals that are relevant in the context of Six Sigma by filtering, using keywords like Six Sigma and CSFs. This analysis leads to the exploration of a number of CSFs followed by their prioritization by using a Pareto analysis quality tool. These CSFs are then sorted into a proposed list of “vital few” and “useful many” CSFs groups in accordance to their frequency of occurrence. Findings: The literature revealed 13 vital CSFs: management involvement and commitment, training, cultural change, communication, customer focus and requirements, organizational infrastructure and resources, project management skills, project prioritization and selection, understanding the Six Sigma methodology, tools and techniques, linking Six Sigma to business strategy, linking Six Sigma to customers, customer focus and requirements, quality data and reporting and linking Six Sigma to suppliers. The consideration of these CSFs will increase the success rates of a Six Sigma program/project in an organization. Research limitations/implications: The CSFs extracted spotlight only small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and do not consider large industries. This paper is confined to those articles that argued that the Six Sigma is beneficial to SMEs and does not consider the failure experience of the industries. Originality/value: This paper identifies the CSFs for implementing Six Sigma that are comprehensive and potential to address the quality-related issues of industries. This paper also provides an extract of the relevant publishing to both the academicians and practitioners in the field of Six Sigma for implementing Six Sigma framework in an organization. This study is apparently the first of its kind on CSF assessment and categorization.

  • Beyond the competency frameworks-conceptualizing and deploying employee strengths at work

    Purpose: With growing stress at work, the need for scholars to focus on humanizing organizations is pressing. Scholars agree five factors lead to humanizing organizations. This study dwells upon one factor – employee strengths at work (ESAW) – problematizes, identifies the gap in its conceptualization, deploys critical social systems theory and reconceptualizes the construct of ESAW by taking key contextual factors into consideration. Thereafter, this study aims to develop a conceptual model and makes propositions related to the mediating effects of ESAW on the association of leadership style and employee performance. Design/methodology/approach: Aimed at contributing to humanizing organizations, this conceptual study problematizes the construct of competency and the trait-based conceptualization of strengths in identifying gaps in the construct of competency for humanizing organizations. Next, the study deploys the technique of construct mixology for evolving the new construct of ESAW. To empirically test ESAW in the field, the authors deploy the critical social systems theory and develop a conceptual model. Further, drawing upon the conceptual model and the extant literature, the authors develop many propositions for enabling future research. Findings: The study develops a new construct of ESAW that holds the promise of contributing to humanizing organizations. By embedding the current trait-based conceptualization of employee strengths to the context of the organization, the new five-factor construct of ESAW is indigenous to the field of organization science, hence, has a higher relevance. The study develops a conceptual model and makes propositions for empirically testing the new construct in the field that future researchers may focus upon. Research limitations/implications: There is a compelling need for humanizing organizations. This conceptual study attempts to bring back the focus of researchers on humanizing organizations, within the framework of the market-driven economy. The new construct of ESAW has huge potential for theory-building and empirical testing. Practical implications: Deployment of ESAW will contribute to humanizing organizations. The construct of ESAW is relevant to practice as it has evolved from the domain of organization science, unlike the earlier trait-based conceptualization of strength that emerged in personality psychology. Practitioners can deploy the construct of ESAW and achieve the two seemingly conflicting objectives of enabling employee well-being while also ensuring superior performance. Social implications: Any contribution toward humanizing organizations forebodes increasing the social capital and the personal well-being of employees. If employees are happy at work, their productivity increases. As per the broaden and build theory of Fredrickson, higher well-being and productivity at work creates a spiral of positivity that transcends the working life of an employee. Hence, the study has huge social implications at times when the social fabric is stretched because of multiple demands on an employee. Originality/value: Constructs developed in other fields and adopted in organization science have less relevance than those evolved in the domain of organization science. Past deficient conceptualization and practices persist unless scholars logically challenge it an alternative and improved conceptualization provided. The new construct of ESAW uses the method of construct mixology after unravelling the assumptions that impedes humanizing organizations.

  • The role online review on mobile commerce adoption: an inclusive growth context

    Purpose: As technology has increasingly disrupted traditional commerce, there is a need for inclusive growth to ensure that no group – particularly the underprivileged – is left behind. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to shed light on mobile commerce (m-commerce) adoption among street vendors. This study conducts an experiment to investigate the contribution of online reviews and relevant factors in enhancing the perceived usefulness and adoption of m-commerce. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a 2 (perceived ease of use: high vs low) × 2 (trust in service provider: high vs low) × 2 (online review: positive vs negative) between-subjects design, resulting in eight experimental groups. The level of the online review was manipulated, and the degrees of perceived ease of use and trust were measured. Findings: Perceived usefulness depends on online reviews when users perceive incongruent information (e.g. high ease of use but low trust); that is, users who saw positive reviews more strongly perceived the usefulness of m-commerce. On the contrary, perceived usefulness does not vary based on online reviews if users perceive congruent information (e.g. high ease of use and high trust). Originality/value: This research advances the knowledge of m-commerce adoption by exploring the interaction of perceived ease of use, trust and online reviews, a combination that has not been addressed in previous empirical studies.

  • International stock markets Integration and dynamics of volatility spillover between the USA and South Asian markets: evidence from Global financial crisis

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cointegration and volatility spillover dynamics between the USA and South Asian stock markets, namely, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study is to provide the knowledge about integration of financial market and volatility spillovers before, during and after global financial crisis to investors, fund managers and policy-makers. Design/methodology/approach: The Johansen and Juselius cointegration test, Granger Causality test and bivaraite EGARCH model have been applied in this study to examine integration and volatility spillovers between selected stock markets. Findings: The findings show that long-term integration between the USA market and South Asian emerging stock markets. It is found that USA stock market has causal relationship with emerging stock markets in short-term. The findings of EGARCH model reveal that asymmetric volatility spillover effects significant in all selected stock markets in pre, during and post-crisis periods. Furthermore, significant volatility spillover is found from stock markets of USA to all selected South Asian markets during and post-crisis periods. However, volatility spillovers from USA to India and Sri-Lanka markets are significant, while insignificant in case of Pakistani market in pre-crisis period. Overall, we find that returns and volatility spillover effects are higher in financial crisis period as compared to non-financial crisis period. Practical implications: The findings of this paper have important implications for investors, portfolio managers and policy-makers. They can take potential benefits from international portfolio diversification by considering all these facts. The understanding and knowledge of across volatility transmission help them to maximize the gains from diversification and minimize the risk. Policy-makers can develop such strategies which protect the markets of these economies from future financial crisis. Originality/value: Although in finance literature numerous studies have been conducted on integration between different stock markets, most of the studies investigated the integration and volatility spillovers between developed stock markets. However, many studies also analyzed the integration among emerging stock markets in literature review but it is hard to find studies in the context of South Asian stock markets on the effect of global financial crisis on stock markets. The main contribution of this study is to investigate the stock markets integration and volatility transmission between the USA and South Asia by considering the effect of recent 2007 US subprime financial crisis.

  • Examining the nonlinear impact of selected macroeconomic determinants on FDI inflows in India

    Purpose: Over the years, India has witnessed irregular FDI inflows. Therefore, this study aims to explore the asymmetric impact of per capita income, final consumption expenditure, globalization index and exchange rate on FDI inflows in India. Design/methodology/approach: Using the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag bounds framework and unknown structural break, the study investigates the impacts of selected macroeconomic variables in driving FDI inflows in India during the study period (1979-2016). Findings: The outcomes of the study confirm the asymmetric relationship between FDI inflows and its determinants during the study period. The results have confirmed that the improvement in per capita income, private consumption expenditure, globalization index and currency value appreciation play a crucial role in increasing FDI inflows in India. In contrast, the downside movements in the volume of consumption expenditure, globalization index and depreciation of the currency value in relation to the trade partners result in reducing the volume of FDI inflows in the long run. Originality/value: For determining FDI inflows, previous studies have considered the overall impact of its potential determinants, which may provide partial information about the phenomenon. The adopted nonlinear approach highlights that both the types of fluctuations (i.e. upside and downside) in the independent variables may affect FDI inflows differently and substantially. The nonlinear association between FDI and selected determinants may be vital in formulating a long-term policy.

  • Employee championing behavior in the context of organizational change: a proposed framework for the business organizations in Bangladesh

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for ensuring employee championing behavior (ECB) during organizational change for business organizations in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of previous literature, this paper proposed a framework for ensuring ECB during organizational change. Findings: This paper proposed transformational leadership (TL), which enhances the championing behavior of the employee. In addition, valence, work engagement and trust in leadership act as potential mediators between TL and championing behavior. This paper also proposed organizational alignment (OA) as a potential moderator that influences ECB in the context of organizational change. Research limitations/implications: This paper highlights numerous influential factors that enhance ECB. This proposed conceptual framework will be validated by the empirical evidence in future research. Practical implications: This paper provides new insights for business leaders to understand the importance of ECB during organizational change. Moreover, this research underlined the effectiveness of valence, work engagement and trust in leadership and OA to nurture ECB in the time of organizational change, which helps managers of the business organizations to make efficient strategies to tackle organizational change. Originality/value: This paper adopted Kurt Lewin’s change management theory and integrated with different factors associated with organizational change (TL, valence, work engagement, trust in leadership and OA) to propose a model to understand the mechanism of enhancing ECB in the context of change in Bangladesh’s business organizations.

  • Influences on purchase intentions of organic food consumers in an emerging economy

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the determinants of organic food buying behaviour in an emerging economy like India, where organic food yet has low market share in spite of its potential. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as the underlying basis, it attempts to explain the effect of attitude, subjective norms and the perceived behaviour control (PBC) on buying intention towards organic food among respondents in Delhi-National capital region, India. Additionally, it attempts to discriminate functional and constructive attitudes. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative questionnaire survey approach was used on 306 respondents and multiple linear regression was used to validate the research model. Findings: Attitudes and PBC have a significant positive impact on the intention to purchase organic food. This paper found subjective norms to be weak and barely significant to intention. The results conclude that health motives, past purchase behaviour, knowledge, affordability and trust in organic certification label are the main facilitators in organic food purchase. Primarily, the respondents see buying organic food regularly as being of value and enjoyable to them. A more favourable appearance vs conventional food was negatively related to behavioural intention. Originality/value: This research could aid all stakeholders in the organic food sector, particularly emerging economies like India where the organic market is still nascent. It could be an essential driver to improve customer involvement and thus aid them in the decision-making process to choose organic food over conventional food. It also attempts to establish the usability of TPB in assessing functional attitudes based on constructive attitudes for organic food purchase.

  • The nexus between corporate governance and intellectual capital in Vietnam

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam. In this paper, corporate governance is proxied by various characteristics, including board size, a number of independent members in the board, board remuneration, major shareholder holding more than 20 per cent of the outstanding shares and duality of the CEO. In addition, intellectual capital is measured using the modified value-added intellectual coefficient model (MVAIC). Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data of 45 Vietnamese listed firms during 2011-2018. The MVAIC model is used incorporating four components, namely, human capital, structural capital, capital used and relational capital. In addition, GMM regression technique is used in this paper. Findings: Empirical findings from this paper indicate that key characteristics of corporate governance, except for board remuneration, may provide a negative effect on the efficient use of intellectual capital. Research limitations/implications: Intellectual capital emerges as a new field of research that has not been widely examined in emerging countries such as Vietnam. As such, there have not been many studies focusing on understanding intellectual capital and its role in the performance of enterprises. Further studies can evaluate the relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance, capital structure, corporate value and social responsibility. This study is limited to listed companies in Vietnam because of data limitations in an emerging market. Studies in the future should extend the sample and/or compare differences between manufacturing enterprises and financial institutions, or between countries. Practical implications: Findings from this paper provide a valuable framework for executives, managers and policymakers in managing corporate governance and intellectual capital within the Vietnamese context. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted to examine the relationship between corporate governance and intellectual capital in the context of Vietnam.

  • Credit derivatives design to facilitate loan purchase agreements in the secondary loan market in Thailand

    Purpose: This paper aims to study a strategic decision of banks in Thailand to signal their types to the market and derive the optimal credit derivatives contract to guarantee their loans and credibly signal their quality under different economic determinants, namely, the maximum credit risk investment constraint, opportunity cost and opaqueness of the credit derivative market. Design/methodology/approach: Contract theory is deployed to derive the expected payoff of different bank types under different economic and financial constraints. Hence, different bank types offer derivatives contracts to signal their loan quality and resell their loans in the secondary loan markets of Thailand. Findings: The optimal derivatives contract is constructed on a basis of asymmetric information when banks have more private information concerning quality of their loans. A digital credit default swap is an optimal derivatives contract to send credible signal when banks are restricted to the maximum investment constraint. Moreover, profit of banks is reduced, as the optimal derivatives contract is more costly when banks are subjected to positive opportunity cost and opacity of the credit derivatives market. These results depict impact of changes of the maximum credit risk investment constraint on Thai credit derivatives market. Originality/value: The optimal credit derivatives design that signifies bank types and facilitates loan purchase agreement has not been studied in Thai secondary loan markets before. In addition, this study provides insights of banks' strategic decisions to signal their types and transfer risk to risk buyers in Thai markets.

  • Factors affecting consumers' pro-environmental behaviour in nutricosmetics consumption: the role of perceived environmental responsibility as a mediator

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the direct effect of compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), environmental self-identity and perceived environmental responsibility (PER) towards consumers' pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). Moreover, this study also investigates the mediating role of PER. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from nutricosmetics consumers in Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was carried out in three major shopping complexes in Klang Valley areas, which generated 448 completed usable responses. The partial least square technique (SmartPLS, version 3) was used to analyse the data and to test the study hypotheses. Findings: The results revealed that CHBs, environmental self-identity and environmental perceived responsibility positively affect consumers’ PEB in nutricosmetics consumption. Additionally, data supported the mediating role of PER in the relationship between CHB, environmental self-identity and PEB. Practical implications: It is expected that the study findings will provide significant insights to help marketers and policymakers about consumers’ nutricosmetic products consumption. It will help the marketers to plan for effective marketing strategies to produce environmentally friendly products and to serve the green consumer segment effectively. Moreover, companies attempting to launch new nutricosmetics brands may find the results helpful in understanding PEB. Originality/value: This study is among the pioneers to examine consumers’ PEB of nutricosmetics products. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies that have investigated the PEB of consumers in regard to the CHBs, environmental self-identity and PER towards nutricosmetics consumption. Additionally, this study examines the mediating role of PER between “CHBs and PEB” and “environmental self-identity and PEB”, which are yet to examine in the past literature in the field.

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