International Review of Victimology
- Sage Publications, Inc.
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 27-3, September 2021
- Nbr. 27-2, May 2021
- Nbr. 27-1, January 2021
- Nbr. 26-3, September 2020
- Nbr. 26-2, May 2020
- Nbr. 26-1, January 2020
- Nbr. 25-3, September 2019
- Nbr. 25-2, May 2019
- Nbr. 25-1, January 2019
- Nbr. 24-3, September 2018
- Nbr. 24-2, May 2018
- Nbr. 24-1, January 2018
- Nbr. 23-3, September 2017
- Nbr. 23-2, May 2017
- Nbr. 23-1, January 2017
- Nbr. 22-3, September 2016
- Nbr. 22-2, May 2016
- Nbr. 22-1, January 2016
- Nbr. 21-3, September 2015
- Nbr. 21-2, May 2015
- Sociality of hate: The transmission of victimization of LGBT+ people through social media
Hate crimes carry many emotional and psychological detriments for those who are targeted because of who they are. The harms associated with hate are commonly theorized in the context of those directly targeted. Using a victimological lens, I consider how the harms of a mass anti-LGBT+ shooting in Orlando, Florida were carried across social media, indirectly victimizing LGBT+ people in the North East of England. This article examines seven distinct interviews conducted post-Orlando from a wider sample of 32. LGBT+ participants were victimized vicariously by receiving news of the Orlando shooting. They utilized social media to organize vigils, stand in solidarity with LGBT+ Floridians, and share in the emotional distress caused by the shooting. The findings contribute to our understandings of hate crime as a communicative tool, by examining the role of social media in carrying the emotional harms associated with hate. Through these in-depth narratives, this article encourages a conversation about how hate crimes, transmitted across social media, can victimize people who share the victimized identity with the direct victims.
- ‘Antisemitism is just part of my day-to-day life’: Coping mechanisms adopted by Orthodox Jews in North London
This paper analyses the coping mechanisms which Orthodox Jews in North London have adopted in managing antisemitism. The study, which was informed by a sociological framework, employed a qualitative approach using 28 semi-structured interviews and five focus groups. The findings reveal that despite the high frequency of the victimisation, and despite the awareness among respondents that antisemitism has seen a resurgence in recent years, Orthodox Jews have managed to accept the victimisation. The way the Orthodox Jewish community has managed their victimisation of antisemitism is argued to be profoundly different from the dominant narratives of hate crime victims, in that by and large the majority of respondents accepted their victimisation. It proposes that respondents were able to show agency and to normalise the victimisation because of their strong religious identity and close community ties.
- The ideal victim: A critical race theory (CRT) approach
Using a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this paper analyses Black and Black mixed- race people’s experiences of reporting crime. It is based on qualitative interviews with 20 participants. The analysis finds that the process of becoming the (un)victim is mediated through the intersection of race with gender and masculinity, class and migrant status. Ultimately, Black and Black mixed-race men are the ‘ideal offender’ rather than the ‘ideal victim’ (Christie, 1986). The research finds that the (un)victim experiences racial re-victimization and develops an altered perception of the police as a trusted body. The racialized affect of being the (un)victim is greater than the effects of minor crime on the victim. The challenges that this poses to the relationship between Black communities and the police are explored and the implications for future practice discussed.
- Book review: Understanding Victims of Interpersonal Violence: A Guide for Investigators and Prosecutors
- Long-term (re)integration of persons trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation
This paper focuses on the recovery and (re)integration processes of women victims of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Europe. It looks at their life not just following a trafficking experience, but for several years afterwards, answering the questions: Are some factors more important than others, in the short and long run? What are the overall dynamics of the (re)integration process? How do the relevant influencing factors interact? What factors are crucial for a positive (re)integration immediately after the experience and how do they differ from what becomes important as the years go by? And what is crucial in order to ensure sustainable (re)integration? Fifty-two semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers, trafficked persons, and family members of trafficked persons. A variety of factors influencing the (re)integration process were identified, such as: (a) the background of the individual; (b) trafficking experience – who the trafficker was and its severity; (c) the role of institutions, NGOs, and service providers; (d) economic factors; (e) the personal characteristics, challenges, motivations, and coping mechanisms of the victim; and finally (f) social support. However, what was identified as particularly important for the sustainability of the (re)integration process was relationships built with service providers, relationships rebuilt with existing family members, or relationships built with new families that were established after the trafficking experience.
- Book review: Restoring Harm: A Psychosocial Approach to Victims and Restorative Justice
- An insider looking in or an outsider wannabee? Studying vulnerable hard-to-reach populations in the field of victimology – the example of the Roma communities in Sweden
This article reviews methodological barriers to victimological research on vulnerable hard-to-reach populations and presents a reflexive discussion of insider and outsider positions in a study researching Roma communities’ victimization in Sweden. As a Roma (Traveler/resande) academic, I found that some aspects of my identity were linked to an insider position, while other aspects of my identity were often perceived by study participants as outsider attributes. Within the framework of critical reflexivity, this article considers the impact of my insider/outsider position at each stage of the research process. The article rearticulates the importance of researcher reflexivity, mainly when both researchers and participants exhibit multiculturality, which has become more common in the globalized world.
- Double, triple or quadruple hits? Exploring the impact of cybercrime on victims in the Netherlands
This article explores the impact of online crime victimisation. A literature review and 41 interviews – 19 with victims and 22 with experts – were carried out to gain insight into this. The interviews show that most impacts of online offences correspond to the impacts of traditional offline offences. There are also differences with offline crime victimisation. Several forms of impact seem to be specific to victims of online crime: the substantial scale and visibility of victimhood, victimisation that does not stop in time, the interwovenness of online and offline, and victim blaming. Victims suffer from double, triple or even quadruple hits; it is the accumulation of different types of impact, enforced by the limitlessness in time and space, which makes online crime victimisation so extremely invasive. Furthermore, the characteristics of online crime victimisation greatly complicate the fight against and prevention of online crime. Finally, the high prevalence of cybercrime victimisation combined with the severe impact of these crimes seems contradictory with public opinion – and associated moral judgments – on victims. Further research into the dominant public discourse on victimisation and how this affects the functioning of the police and victim support would be valuable.
- Book review: After Homicide: Victims’ Families in the Criminal Justice System
- ‘Not bullet proof’: The complex choice not to seek a civil protection order for intimate partner violence
Protection orders (POs) are one legal system resource available to survivors of intimate partner violence. Many survivors choose not to obtain a PO, yet prior research has not examined the perspectives of these survivors. This study examined the open-ended survey responses (n = 308) regarding the choice not to obtain a PO by survivors residing in emergency shelters in the United States. Content analysis indicated that many survivors made deliberate decisions to not seek safety through this venue. Survivors indicated that a PO may increase their partner’s violence, identified substantial barriers, evaluated a PO as unnecessary, preferred alternative strategies, were dealing with complex partner dynamics, and chose to protect their loved ones by not seeking a PO. Women with marginalized identities, in particular, indicated that there are multiple costs to seeking interventions within the legal system. Structural changes are needed within the legal system to facilitate access to justice for survivors.
- Assessing Satisfaction with Victim Services: The Development and Use of the Victim Satisfaction with Offender Dialogue Scale (VSODS)
There is an increasing need for restorative justice programs to evaluate program outcomes. Victim satisfaction is one of the essential components of program evaluation. Evaluation of victim satisfaction is important because it provides a means by which victims can have input into the restorative...
- Book review: Restorative Justice and Victimology: Euro-Africa Perspectives
- Compensation of Non-Material Damage in Civil and Criminal Law in the Netherlands
In cases of war, large-scale accidents, and crime, victims may suffer serious non-material damage. This article focuses on the compensation of non-material damage in both civil and criminal cases. Compared to other countries, Dutch courts do not honour such claims on a wide scale. The article...
- Japanese Childhood Victims of Sexual Abuse and their Social Perceptions: Comparisons with Children in Germany, Greece and the USA
Empirical Japanese studies of childhood sexual abuse are rare. The few studies that do exist are mostly case studies involving low numbers of respondents. These are usually highly subjective, mostly legal or psychiatric in orientation and cannot be generalized to the Japanese population. In Japan...
- Why victimology should focus on all victims, including all missing and disappeared persons
This article examines issues concerning the scope and role of victimology specifically as far as they relate to missing and disappeared persons. It argues that victimology ought to have a greater effect on the world by dealing with more victims, and that it should not be a solely academic...
- Book review: Criminal Justice in Transition: The Northern Ireland Context
- Observers’ reactions to victim impact statements
Previous research has shown that expectancy violations can have both affective and cognitive consequences. In particular, recent victimological research argues that people’s perceptions and judgments of victims are negatively influenced when their expectations of the victim’s emotional behavior are ...
- Violence Against Women in the Yugoslav war as told by Women-Refugees
In the first part of the paper the author discusses and interprets the results of research carried out in 1994, on the basis of interviews with 70 women refugees from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, presently situated in Serbia and Montenegro. Also, the first part of the paper was written as a...
- Book Review: The Pocket Guide to Restorative Justice
- Self-Reported Violent Victimization Among Young Adults in Miami, Florida: Immigration, Race/Ethnic and Gender Contrasts*
Does being an immigrant place an individual at greater risk than non-immigrants for violent victimization? Could residence in homogeneous communities, such as ethnic enclaves, serve to protect or mediate victimization among immigrant groups from being targets of victimization? These and related...