International Review of Victimology

Publisher:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Publication date:
2021-09-06
ISBN:
0269-7580

Latest documents

  • Sociality of hate: The transmission of victimization of LGBT+ people through social media

    Hate crimes carry many emotional and psychological detriments for those who are targeted because of who they are. The harms associated with hate are commonly theorized in the context of those directly targeted. Using a victimological lens, I consider how the harms of a mass anti-LGBT+ shooting in Orlando, Florida were carried across social media, indirectly victimizing LGBT+ people in the North East of England. This article examines seven distinct interviews conducted post-Orlando from a wider sample of 32. LGBT+ participants were victimized vicariously by receiving news of the Orlando shooting. They utilized social media to organize vigils, stand in solidarity with LGBT+ Floridians, and share in the emotional distress caused by the shooting. The findings contribute to our understandings of hate crime as a communicative tool, by examining the role of social media in carrying the emotional harms associated with hate. Through these in-depth narratives, this article encourages a conversation about how hate crimes, transmitted across social media, can victimize people who share the victimized identity with the direct victims.

  • ‘Antisemitism is just part of my day-to-day life’: Coping mechanisms adopted by Orthodox Jews in North London

    This paper analyses the coping mechanisms which Orthodox Jews in North London have adopted in managing antisemitism. The study, which was informed by a sociological framework, employed a qualitative approach using 28 semi-structured interviews and five focus groups. The findings reveal that despite the high frequency of the victimisation, and despite the awareness among respondents that antisemitism has seen a resurgence in recent years, Orthodox Jews have managed to accept the victimisation. The way the Orthodox Jewish community has managed their victimisation of antisemitism is argued to be profoundly different from the dominant narratives of hate crime victims, in that by and large the majority of respondents accepted their victimisation. It proposes that respondents were able to show agency and to normalise the victimisation because of their strong religious identity and close community ties.

  • The ideal victim: A critical race theory (CRT) approach

    Using a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this paper analyses Black and Black mixed- race people’s experiences of reporting crime. It is based on qualitative interviews with 20 participants. The analysis finds that the process of becoming the (un)victim is mediated through the intersection of race with gender and masculinity, class and migrant status. Ultimately, Black and Black mixed-race men are the ‘ideal offender’ rather than the ‘ideal victim’ (Christie, 1986). The research finds that the (un)victim experiences racial re-victimization and develops an altered perception of the police as a trusted body. The racialized affect of being the (un)victim is greater than the effects of minor crime on the victim. The challenges that this poses to the relationship between Black communities and the police are explored and the implications for future practice discussed.

  • Book review: Understanding Victims of Interpersonal Violence: A Guide for Investigators and Prosecutors
  • Long-term (re)integration of persons trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation

    This paper focuses on the recovery and (re)integration processes of women victims of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Europe. It looks at their life not just following a trafficking experience, but for several years afterwards, answering the questions: Are some factors more important than others, in the short and long run? What are the overall dynamics of the (re)integration process? How do the relevant influencing factors interact? What factors are crucial for a positive (re)integration immediately after the experience and how do they differ from what becomes important as the years go by? And what is crucial in order to ensure sustainable (re)integration? Fifty-two semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers, trafficked persons, and family members of trafficked persons. A variety of factors influencing the (re)integration process were identified, such as: (a) the background of the individual; (b) trafficking experience – who the trafficker was and its severity; (c) the role of institutions, NGOs, and service providers; (d) economic factors; (e) the personal characteristics, challenges, motivations, and coping mechanisms of the victim; and finally (f) social support. However, what was identified as particularly important for the sustainability of the (re)integration process was relationships built with service providers, relationships rebuilt with existing family members, or relationships built with new families that were established after the trafficking experience.

  • Book review: Restoring Harm: A Psychosocial Approach to Victims and Restorative Justice
  • An insider looking in or an outsider wannabee? Studying vulnerable hard-to-reach populations in the field of victimology – the example of the Roma communities in Sweden

    This article reviews methodological barriers to victimological research on vulnerable hard-to-reach populations and presents a reflexive discussion of insider and outsider positions in a study researching Roma communities’ victimization in Sweden. As a Roma (Traveler/resande) academic, I found that some aspects of my identity were linked to an insider position, while other aspects of my identity were often perceived by study participants as outsider attributes. Within the framework of critical reflexivity, this article considers the impact of my insider/outsider position at each stage of the research process. The article rearticulates the importance of researcher reflexivity, mainly when both researchers and participants exhibit multiculturality, which has become more common in the globalized world.

  • Double, triple or quadruple hits? Exploring the impact of cybercrime on victims in the Netherlands

    This article explores the impact of online crime victimisation. A literature review and 41 interviews – 19 with victims and 22 with experts – were carried out to gain insight into this. The interviews show that most impacts of online offences correspond to the impacts of traditional offline offences. There are also differences with offline crime victimisation. Several forms of impact seem to be specific to victims of online crime: the substantial scale and visibility of victimhood, victimisation that does not stop in time, the interwovenness of online and offline, and victim blaming. Victims suffer from double, triple or even quadruple hits; it is the accumulation of different types of impact, enforced by the limitlessness in time and space, which makes online crime victimisation so extremely invasive. Furthermore, the characteristics of online crime victimisation greatly complicate the fight against and prevention of online crime. Finally, the high prevalence of cybercrime victimisation combined with the severe impact of these crimes seems contradictory with public opinion – and associated moral judgments – on victims. Further research into the dominant public discourse on victimisation and how this affects the functioning of the police and victim support would be valuable.

  • Book review: After Homicide: Victims’ Families in the Criminal Justice System
  • ‘Not bullet proof’: The complex choice not to seek a civil protection order for intimate partner violence

    Protection orders (POs) are one legal system resource available to survivors of intimate partner violence. Many survivors choose not to obtain a PO, yet prior research has not examined the perspectives of these survivors. This study examined the open-ended survey responses (n = 308) regarding the choice not to obtain a PO by survivors residing in emergency shelters in the United States. Content analysis indicated that many survivors made deliberate decisions to not seek safety through this venue. Survivors indicated that a PO may increase their partner’s violence, identified substantial barriers, evaluated a PO as unnecessary, preferred alternative strategies, were dealing with complex partner dynamics, and chose to protect their loved ones by not seeking a PO. Women with marginalized identities, in particular, indicated that there are multiple costs to seeking interventions within the legal system. Structural changes are needed within the legal system to facilitate access to justice for survivors.

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