Protected Disclosure in UK Law

Leading Cases
  • Kuzel v Roche Products Ltd
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 17 Apr 2008

    Unfair dismissal and discrimination on specific prohibited grounds are, however, different causes of action. The statutory structure of the unfair dismissal legislation is so different from that of the discrimination legislation that an attempt at cross fertilisation or legal transplants runs a risk of complicating rather than clarifying the legal concepts.

  • Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd and Others (No. 2)
    • House of Lords
    • 13 Oct 1988

    I start with the broad general principle (which I do not intend in any way to be definitive) that a duty of confidence arises when confidential information comes to the knowledge of a person (the confidant) in circumstances where he has notice, or is held to have agreed, that the information is confidential, with the effect that it would be just in all the circumstances that he should be precluded from disclosing the information to others.

    It is that, although the basis of the law's protection of confidence is that there is a public interest that confidences should be preserved and protected by the law, nevertheless that public interest may be outweighed by some other countervailing public interest which favours disclosure.

  • Norwich Pharmacal Company v Commissioners of Customs and Excise
    • House of Lords
    • 26 Jun 1973

    They seem to me to point to a very reasonable principle that if through no fault of his own a person gets mixed up in the tortious acts of others so as to facilitate their wrong-doing he may incur no personal liability but he comes under a duty to assist the person who has been wronged by giving him full information and disclosing the identity of the wrongdoers.

  • Balabel v Air India
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 16 Mar 1988

    Where information is passed by the solicitor or client to the other as part of the continuum aimed at keeping both informed so that advice may be sought and given as required, privilege will attach. Moreover, legal advice is not confined to telling the client the law; it must include advice as to what should prudently and sensibly be done in the relevant legal context.

  • Babula v Waltham Forest College
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 07 Mar 2007

    An Employment Tribunal hearing a claim for automatic unfair dismissal has to make three key findings. The first is whether or not the employee believes that the information he is disclosing meets the criteria set out in one or more of the subsections in ERA 1996, section 43B(1)(a) to (f). The second is to decide, objectively, whether or not that belief is reasonable. The third is to decide whether or not the disclosure is made in good faith.

  • Rank Film Distributors Ltd v Video Information Centre
    • House of Lords
    • 08 Apr 1981

    Moreover whatever direct use may or may not be made of information given, or material disclosed, under the compulsory process of the court, it must not be overlooked that, quite apart from that, its provision or disclosure may set in train a process which may lead to incrimination or may lead to the discovery of real evidence of an incriminating character. In the present case, this cannot be discounted as unreal: it is not only a possible but probably the intended result.

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