Application of the AIDA model. Measuring the effectiveness of television programs in encouraging teenagers to use public libraries

Publication Date12 November 2018
AuthorMitra Pashootanizadeh,Saideh Khalilian
SubjectLibrary & information science,Librarianship/library management,Library & information services
Application of the AIDA model
Measuring the effectiveness of television
programs in encouraging teenagers to
use public libraries
Mitra Pashootanizadeh and Saideh Khalilian
Department of Knowledge and Information Science,
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Purpose The purpose of this study is to measure how effective television programs are in persuading
teenagersto use public libraries.
Design/methodology/approach This studyis a descriptive survey. The statisticalpopulation includes
all membersof public libraries in the Cityof Isfahan aged between 12and 16 years (N = 920). Using Cochrans
formula, the samplesize was determined to be 270 individuals.The data were collected by a researcher-made
questionnairesurvey instrument whose validity was conrmedby Library and Information Science experts.
Furthermore, the reliability of the questionnaire was conrmed via Cronbachsalphain the pilot test with
0.73.Having a return rate of 85.93 per cent, theauthors were able to analyze 232 setsof responses.
Findings Based on the authorsndings,television programs are only able to satisfy the rststage of the
model (i.e. Attention).So, its role in encouraging teenagers to use public librariesis not signicant. Among the
items of the model, Desirability and interest in the programand Persuading teenagers to use public
librarieswerefound to be the most and least effective items,respectively, with average responses of 8.42and
5.13. Moreover, televisionshows categorized as kids/teenagers weremost likely to attract the target audience
to libraries.
Originality/value There is no any similar study in this scope, especially in the Middle East, where watching
the television remains a mainstream activity for teenagers. It is for the rst time that AIDA model is used for
measuring the effectiveness of television programs in persuading teenagers to use public libraries in Iran.
Keywords Public libraries, Reading, teenagers, Library use, AIDA model, Television programs
Paper type Research paper
In the twenty-rst century,human beings are exposed to information explosions. The young
adult generation has been born in this era and the identication of their information needs
and developing information formats which match their needs are the responsibility of the
school and public librarians.Libraries play a signicant role, especially school libraries that
have a close relationship with adolescents and young people and can contribute to the
growth of their personality.
The Library and Information Center is an important component of any educational
institution, which is the hub of teaching, and learningactivities where students, researchers
and teachers can explore the vast resources of information (Sinha, 2004). But based on the
results of numerous studies and statistics available from the Iranian Department of
Education in 2008, it was found that the libraries and per capitaof existing school books are
of inferior quality in comparison with international and national standards (Kiani and
Pakdam, 2009).
Application of
the AIDA
Received14 April 2018
Revised7 June 2018
Accepted5 August 2018
Informationand Learning Science
Vol.119 No. 11, 2018
pp. 635-651
© Emerald Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/ILS-04-2018-0028
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
Also, Eftekhari et al. (2015) concludedin their research that most of the schoolslibraries
in Iran were unable to perform their actualtasks. Some of these problems include the lack of
facilities and equipment, lack of a physical environment for study, the inadequacy of the
number of books in libraries, inattention of studentsinformation needs, lack of books and
libraries in the educational system. In such a situation, public libraries must play a pivotal
role in developing a knowledge-basedcommunity so that they should support and provide
information and knowledgeto all types of individuals in the community (Jose Suaiden, 2003;
Mahat, 2002). It is thus evidentthat these libraries in Iran should provide special services for
students to decreasethe impact of shortages in school libraries.
According to a report by the Iran Public Libraries Foundations, there were 3,170 public
libraries in the country in 2014, which shows an increase of 7.3 per cent from the previous
year. However, analyses reveal that, despite large investments, libraries continue to
experience sharp decreases in the number of users and book lending (Kohi Rostami, 2015).
Therefore, it is necessary to identifythe factors that prevent individuals from joining public
libraries, as large investments are at stake if they fail to attract new members and, in turn,
maintain the few they already have. Reading habits tend to form during the early years of
ones life, i.e. childhood and adolescence.The latter group seems more likely to rely on other
sources of information(e.g. the internet) if they cannot satisfy their special needs.
Young adults, as dened by the Young Adult Library Services Association (Join et al.,
2006), are individuals aged between 12 and 18 years. In this publication, the terms young
adult (YA), teens, teenagers, adolescents, youth and students will be used to describe this
group of library users aged between 12 and 18 years, who represent almost one-quarter of
the users of public libraries (Jones, 2002). Majority of library users in Iran are aged between
10 and 20 years, and as age increases, the use of librariesdecreases (Zare et al., 2015).
The need for young adult services in librariesis greater than ever (Join et al.,2006). Teens
have unique needs that are quite differentfrom those of adults and children. The library has
an obligation to address those uniqueneeds. The developmental needs of teens are different
than that of children (Ludwig,2011) and the very purpose of public libraries is to help teens
thrive and develop into caring, competent adults (Jones, 2002;Ludwig, 2011). Therefore, in
addition to providing the resources and services required by adolescents, public libraries
should have ways of communicating with this target group to attract them and promote
reading habits therebycreating loyal library patrons for the future.
The implication of marketingconcept in non-business areas, namely, socialmarketing, is
rapidly growing and has had considerableeffect on consumption patterns. Social marketing
seeks to utilize tools, techniquesand concepts derived from commercial marketing to pursue
social goals (Andreasen,2006). Today, all organizations are not only seekingmore prot and
personal interests but also have a superior goal and that is to put inuence on individuals
actions and behavior (Peattie and Peattie,2009). One of these tools for attracting people and
especially teens to public libraries may be the TV. It is often called kingof the media
(Rawal, 2013).
Watching TV or movies is one of the best leisure-time for the teens.TV is a great way to
capture the attention of teens (Taney, 2003). It is one of the mass media technologies.
Although the mass media has a greater inuence on people of all ages, teenagers are more
exposed to mass media than anyother age group. Teenagersviews on things, attitudes and
opinions change a lot too. The mass mediaimposes a model of style, behavior, attitude and
fashion (Jevtic, 2013). Television,as a mass medium, has a tremendous inuence on modern
society and plays a dominantrole. Today people spend most of their time watching a variety
of television programs(Guru et al.,2013).

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