Derivations of design concepts for video search interfaces

Date15 July 2019
Published date15 July 2019
AuthorCliff Loke,Schubert Foo,Shaheen Majid
Subject MatterLibrary & information science,Information behaviour & retrieval,Information & knowledge management,Information management & governance,Information management
Derivations of design concepts
for video search interfaces
Cliff Loke, Schubert Foo and Shaheen Majid
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
Purpose Keywords search is intuitive, simple to use and convenient. It is also the de facto input interface
for textual and multimedia retrieval. However, individuals often perform poorly when faced with exploratory
search tasks that are common during learning, resulting in poor quality searches. The purpose of this paper is
to examine how adolescent learners search and select videos to support self-learning. The findings allow for
the identification of design concepts of video retrieval interface and features that can facilitate better
exploratory searches.
Design/methodology/approach Participants were assigned two customized video search tasks. The
think-aloud protocol is used to allow participants to verbalize their actions, thoughts and feeling. This
approach offered rich insights to the participantscognitive processes and considerations when performing
the search tasks.
Findings This study identified five themes for exploratory video search behavior: selection of internet
resources, query formulation/reformulation, selection of the video(s) for preview, getting acquainted with the
video content, and making a decision for the search task. The analysis of these themes led to a number of
design concepts, ranging from supporting exploration of topics to better interaction with metadata.
Practical implications The findings can inform future development of dedicated video retrieval systems
interfaces that seeks to facilitate effective exploratory searches by learners.
Originality/value This study contributes by suggesting design concepts for video retrieval system
developers to support exploratory video searches.
Keywords Think-aloud protocol, Design concepts, Exploratory video search behaviour, Learning support,
Quality search, Video system interfaces
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
Finding information to fill knowledge gaps is an human behavior. The easy accessibility
and pervasiveness of the internet have made it one of the most important online sources for
finding information. Information-seeking behavior models are used to understand the
information seeking process and to depict the dynamics of interaction between human and
systems (Marchionini, 1995). Different information seeking models are used in various
situations to show alternative information seeking perspectives.
Information-seeking behavior has radically changed due to the proliferation of
information on the internet and the advancements of design and capabilities of search
engines (De Choudhury et al., 2014; Taylor, 2012). The emergence of Web 2.0 and social
networking sites are also altering the online information landscape as anyone can take the
roles of information consumers and information producers. Even without any specialised
training in searching, anyone could find information on the internet when immersed in an
information-filled environment. Information literacy skills are essential for finding
information and discerning the quality of information on the internet (Taylor and Dalal,
2014). Furthermore, the growth in self-authored content by non-experts has increased the
challenge for people in finding quality information due to the lack of quality control.
In the learning context, students are increasingly turning to the internet to seek learning
resources. The use of technologies in classrooms has brought adjustments to teaching
practices and influenced learning dynamics (Hicks, 2011; Domingo and Garganté, 2016).
The exposure to the internet and computing devices is becoming increasingly ubiquitous
and more students are turning to self-learning. Students are now comfortable in using the
internet and online resources to address problems encountered in school as well as to extend
Aslib Journal of Information
Vol. 71 No. 4, 2019
pp. 458-479
© Emerald PublishingLimited
DOI 10.1108/AJIM-07-2018-0163
Received 6 July 2018
Revised 17 September 2018
9 November 2018
Accepted 12 November 2018
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
their learning experience (Peng et al., 2006; Chang et al., 2014). However, the pervasive
use of technologies and the internet has not improved their ability to find and
evaluate information (Rowlands et al., 2008). The extensive use of technology might have
improved the students use of digital tools but this improvement does not translate to better
quality searches.
Beyond formal learning in classrooms, students extend their knowledge through
independent self-learning, and this calls for a more effective search of resources. The
examination of web-based system transaction logs of self-directed students preparing for
college admission tests revealed non-optimal online behavior, such as a preference for
short-answer verbal questions (Loken et al., 2004). When finding learning resources,
students might miss out effective resources due to poorly developed information seeking
skills or a propensity to satisfice ( Jooand Choi, 2015). When young learners satisfice during
information seeking, they contend with less than optimal resources that meet the minimal
requirements. This can affect the effectiveness of self-learning adopted by the students.
In Singapore, post-secondary students can continue their education in vocational and
applied skills training institutions such as polytechnics (e.g. Singapore Polytechnic) and
Institute of Technical Education. However, studies have shown that Singapore school
students have poor information literacy skills (Yun-ke et al., 2012), particularly pertaining to
the evaluation of information quality (Foo et al., 2014). Although numerous interface
features have been developed to support effective searches, many of these advanced
features are not frequently used. Instead, simple and convenient features, such as the
keyword searching, are preferred. Complex tasks, such as an exploratory search, often lead
to poor search results.
Educational videos are useful learning resources for these adolescent learners who wish
to develop practical skills. Videos, more than textual resources, can better fulfill a vocational
learners information need as videos present a visual demonstration of a technique. Video
resources are multi-dimensional and have different characteristics and properties as
compared to textual resources. However, many search engines do not distinguish such
differing characteristics and use the same interface to support search and retrieval. Hence, in
order to support more effective searches of video resources for adolescent learners, there is a
need to derive more useful interface design concepts to support video searching. This study
addresses the following research questions:
RQ1. What are the challenges faced by learners during exploratory video searches to
support their self-learning?
RQ2. What video retrieval features can alleviate the challenges faced by the learners in
exploratory video searches?
In this study, we have adopted the think-aloud protocol (TAP), a concurrent verbal
technique, to study and provide insights on how adolescent learners search and select
videos to support self-learning. The findings from this study seek to guide the design of a
robust video retrieval interface. The paper is structured as follows. First, literature related to
online information seeking, video search interfaces and search tasks are reviewed. Then we
describe the research methodology and the coding process. The analysis that follows
identifies and describes the themes related to video seeking behavior. Finally, the findings
were used to provide recommendations of design concepts for video search interfaces.
2. Related studies
Four areas of literature are pertinent to online information seeking behavior: online
information seeking; task complexity and exploratory search; use of videos in learning; and
video retrieval interfaces.
Video search

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