Developing a context-aware annotation system for Hakka culture-specific language learning

Published date20 November 2017
Date20 November 2017
AuthorChen Chi Chang,Chien Hsiang Liao
Subject MatterLibrary & information science,Librarianship/library management,Library technology,Information behaviour & retrieval,Information user studies,Metadata,Information & knowledge management,Information & communications technology,Internet
Developing a context-aware
annotation system for Hakka
culture-specific language learning
Chen Chi Chang
Department of Culture Creativity and Digital Marketing,
National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan, and
Chien Hsiang Liao
Department of Information Management, Fu Jen Catholic University,
New Taipei City, Taiwan
Purpose This paper describes a computer supported ubiquitous learning environment for minority
language learning. Hakka language involved various tones, art, craft, festivals, food, drink, medicine,
religion and custom in different regions. The tones also vary across the dialects of Hakka. The majority
of Hakka dialects have six tones in Taiwan. The context for Hakka language translation and use is
extremely important. The purpose of this paper is to present the context-aware annotation service to help
readers get the right information for Hakka language use and learning more easily.
Design/methodology/approach This paper proposes the co ntext-aware learnin g support system
for Hakka culture-spe cific items or langua ge, which is called Hakka culture-specific it ems annotation
system (HACSIAS). HACSI AS is the context-aware annotation system, helping lear ners to add links of
culture-specific ite ms when they are reading the electronic journa ls, books, and web pages.
Findings The HACSIAS provides learner appropriate information for Hakka culture-specific items
deriving the learners situation and personal information. The context-aware computing will automatically
provide translation service by searching a given culture-specific items database while these items or
terminology appear in a document, either by displaying terms in the translation memory.
Originality/value The context-aware annotation system for Hakka culture-specific language learning
allows Hakka cultural resources to be smoothly integrated into learning materials.
Keywords Information technology, Context-aware computing, Situated learning, Annotation service,
Culture-specific items, Hakka language
Paper type Technical paper
Hakka is a Chinese dialect that comes from various areas due to the migration culture. Hakka
language revitalization is the target of language revival efforts. It involves a reversal of the
language shift whereby people start using a language that has become moribund or threatened
with extinction (Charles and Isa, 2015). Like other minority languages, Hakka language entails
a body of culture and is a component of ethnicity. Our multicultural society means that
minority languages are being less widely used. Hakka language was not very useful for aiding
survival in society, because only a few people spoke this minority language (Hsieh, 2012).
There has been a decrease in the language proficiency of the native speakers the younger the
speaker, the poorer his language competence. It is important to draw a link between culture and
minority languages. Therefore, the culture-specific items in a minority languageplay a critical
role. Various contexts and regions have different culture-specific items in a minority language.
The purpose of minority language revival is to help people to understand the culture-specific
items and, furthermore, to encourage them to use the culture-specific items in the minority
language. The automatic translation systems (e.g. Google translation) cannot produce Library Hi Tech
Vol. 35 No. 4, 2017
pp. 445-457
© Emerald PublishingLimited
DOI 10.1108/LHT-01-2017-0015
Received 21 January 2017
Revised 7 March 2017
Accepted 11 March 2017
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
This research was supported financially by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan under
Grant No. MOST 105-2420-H-239-003-MY3.
Developing a

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