Estimating green purchase behavior: an empirical study using integrated behavior model in Bangladesh

Date25 November 2020
Published date25 November 2020
AuthorMd. Zillur Rahman Siddique,Goutam Saha,Aminur Rahman Kasem
Estimating green purchase behavior: an
empirical study using integrated behavior
model in Bangladesh
Md. Zillur Rahman Siddique, Goutam Saha and Aminur Rahman Kasem
Purpose This paper aims to examine the exogenous effects of experiential attitude toward green
(EAG), instrumental attitude toward green (IAG), injunctive norms on green (ING), descriptive norms
about green (DNG), green perceived control (GPC) and green self-efficacy (GSE) on green purchase
intention (GPI). Moreover, this paper also investigates the causal factors of green purchase behavior
(GPB) considering green knowledge (GK), the salience of green behavior (SGB), environmental
constraints(ECPG) and green habit (GH).
Design/methodology/approach The research model was adoptedto measure the green behavior of
Bangladeshi consumers usingan integrated behavior model (IBM). The data were randomly collected
from 372 respondents and partial least squaresstructural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was
used to test the hypotheses.
Findings PLS results imply that all independent variables (EAG; IAG; ING; DNG; GPC and GSE)
impact GPI; and SGB, GH and GPI influenceGPB. On the other hand, GK and ECPG have no significant
effect on GPB.
Research limitations/implications There may present a gap in the outcomes of the studyto signify
the generalizability because the survey was conducted in some cities of Bangladesh which may not
representthe country as a whole.
Practical implications This study anticipates the cause-effect relationship between GPI, GPB and
their determinants.The results of the study can help marketers understandgreen consumer behavior and
designappropriate strategies and tactics for new marketingchallenges.
Originality/value This research investigates green purchase behavior in a developing country. It
empirically confirms the validity of IBM in assessing green behavior, especially for Bangladesh, a
booming economy and suitable for investment. Although ample research explored green purchase
behavior,green habit and saliency have not been consideredin measuring green purchase behavior.
Keywords Green behavior, Bangladeshi consumers, Green purchase behavior,
Green purchase intention, Integrated behavior model
Paper type Research paper
Over the past decades, a vast number of consumers perceived that their consumption
behavior had a direct impact on the environment. Consequently, consumers genuinely feel
the urgency of green consumption to meet their basic needs because of a continuously
growing population, deteriorating environmental situation and the ongoing crisis of energy
(Singh and Bansal, 2012). Other environmental issues such as global warming, climate
change and loss of biodiversity also push consumers to think about green consumption
(Gardner and Stern, 2002). This urgency reflected on consumers’ choice of choosing or
avoiding products based on their consumption effects on the natural environment (Laroche
et al., 2001), and therefore, they seek to buy eco-friendly products for ensuring the welfare
Md. Zillur Rahman Siddique
is an Assistant Professor,
Department of Marketing,
Comilla University, Cumilla,
Goutam Saha is a Lecturer
in Marketing, Department of
Business Administration,
Bangladesh Army
University of Science and
Technology, Saidpur,
Aminur Rahman Kasem is a
graduate student at
Technical University of
Munich, Germany.
Received 14 April 2019
Revised 17 December 2019
25 April 2020
23 June 2020
Accepted 18 August 2020
DOI 10.1108/JABS-04-2019-0120 VOL. 15 NO. 2 2021, pp. 319-344, ©Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 1558-7894 jJOURNAL OF ASIA BUSINESS STUDIES jPAGE 319
of future generation (Kilbourne et al.,2009;Laroche et al., 2001). In addition, perceived
personal well-being, a lower perceived risk and uncertainty and command over expenses
have also influenced consumers to engage in green consumption behavior (Carrete et al.,
2012) and green consumers are willing to consume thegreen product and pay more for the
green product (Lee et al., 2010;Gan et al.,2008;Kahn, 2007;Zeng and Wei, 2007;
Coddington, 1993). Because of growing environmental concerns, business organizations
are also coerced to divulge information about the environmental impacts of their business
activities (Alipour et al.,2019). The concept of green consumption was first to come to light
in the 1997s (Peattie, 2010), and the concern of consumers about the environment has
increased radically over time (Jain and Kaur,2004a, 2004b). Anew, some features of green
consumption were ascertained such as preservation of resources, less pollution,
environmentally favorable lifestyle and behavior, the purchase of eco-friendly products,
reusable and recycled goods to ensure the protection of the natural environment and the
coexistence of all kinds of species (Paco and Rapose, 2009). Hence, green consumption
can be defined as the subject to the sustainability of green behavior, less energy
consumption, less emission of carbon and ensure sustainable development (OECD, 2008,
2002,1997). To implement the greenconsumption practice truly, a positive consideration of
individual consciousness and attitudes toward social, economic and environmental virtuous
is needed. The government and various green groups also help consumers to become
green by providing subsidiaries and promoting benefits about green consumption (Lin and
Huang, 2012). The decisions of consumers about purchasing green products may rely on
peer opinion (Straughan and Roberts, 1999) and interpersonal factors (Kalafatis et al.,
1999). Nevertheless, the green environmental movement and green consumption positively
impacted many countries’ manufacturers and business enterprises on the development of
strategies and policies (Connolly and Prothero, 2008;Zhang et al.,2018), and this
influenced manufacturers to align their business according to consumer preferences
(Sandhu et al., 2010).
In Bangladesh, the idea of green consumption didnot come to focus before the 1990s, and
that was the time when a few firms started to get familiar with a concept about the terms
such as green consumption, environment consciousness, environment-friendly
commodities and recyclable products (Bhuiyan and Azad, 1999 cited in Alauddin et al.,
2014). It is challenging to execute sustainable consumption and production system in
developing countries like Bangladesh due to over-population, high poverty, lack of
knowledge about sustainability, poor execution of environmental rules, regulations and
policies by the concerned authority, unfair trading (Majid, 2018) and corrupt business
environment which allow manufacturers to ignore environmental obligations (Mahmood,
2004;Zafarullah and Siddiquee, 2001). The environmental challenges such as the
continuous rising of water and air pollution, inept using and extracting of natural resources,
excessively high rate of biodiversity loss (Hagerty, 2008) and the increasing amount of
waste (Majid, 2018) put consumers of Bangladesh to change their conventional
consumption pattern to green consumption to keep the environment clean (Siddique and
Hossain, 2018). Nowadays, many manufacturing companies have been promoting
environmentally friendly consumption behavior being pressurized by fierce competition,
cost-profit issues, non-government social welfare organizations (Alauddin et al.,2014)and
government sustainable development policies (Rana, 2011). To achieve sustainable
consumption, consumers must act willingly as a driver of the green movement (Jahanshahi
et al., 2017), companies have to integrate environmental responsibility with profit objective
(Alauddin, 2014), corporates must disclose their sustainability practices information to
enhance environmentally, as well as business performance (Laskar, 2018) and the
Government of Bangladesh, need to have a clear vision with scientific and technological
knowledge and capacity (Majid,2018).
Gradual changes in the environment dictate consumers to think about green consumption
behavior and need them to shape their behavior according to it. Because of the modifying

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