I hope and I continue. Integrating the concept of hope into the expectancy-disconfirmation framework

Publication Date14 May 2018
Date14 May 2018
AuthorYi Ding
SubjectInformation & knowledge management,Information systems,Data management systems,Knowledge management,Knowledge sharing,Management science & operations,Supply chain management,Supply chain information systems,Logistics,Quality management/systems
I hope and I continue
Integrating the concept of hope into the
expectancy-disconfirmation framework
Yi Ding
Department of Management Science and Engineering, Southeast University,
Nanjing, China
Purpose Continued usage of information systems (ISs) is highly critical to a firms sustained success.
The expectancy-disconfirmation framework has been effective in explaining continuance. However, our own
experiences suggest that we may continueusing an IS despite low satisfaction.One of the reasons is that the
predictionof future user intentin existing models is predominantlyretrospective.The purpose of this paperis to
address this gap by incorporating forward-looking considerations into the expectancy-disconfirmation model.
Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire survey was conducted for two types of mobile
applications: photo-sharing and note-taking, and 593 valid responses were collected. The partial least squares
method was employed for structural model analysis for each type of applications.
Findings The well-entrenched expectancy-disconfirmationmodel was empiricallyverified.This study further
shows thatthe influence of satisfactionon continuance intentionis higher when hope for the futureof a mobile
applicationis stronger, andvice versa, after controllingfor the impact of pastusage behaviour. Inaddition, hope
is found to be induced by appraisals ofperceived usefulness and importance of a mobile application.
Originality/value This study demonstrates that the expectancy-disconfirmation model can be enhanced
with considerations of future outcomes. It shows that emotions such as hope are inherent to continuance
decisions. Moreover, it goes beyond the valence dimension of emotions and identified specific antecedents of
hope based on the appraisal theory.
Keywords Hope, IS continuance, Disconfirmation, Appraisal theory, Past usage behaviour
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
Information system users with high continuance intention are critically important because
they are the loyal, returning customers who ensure the sustained success of businesses in a
competitive industry. The issue of continuance is even more prominent for mobile
applications. Recent research shows that 80 per cent of all app users churn within 90 days
(Perro, 2017).The data motivates us to furtherunderstand the drivers of continueduse so that
more informeddecisions can be made and more effective measurescan be implemented, and it
also urges mobile app marketers to shift their focus away from acquisition to retention.
Many studies on information system (IS) continuance are based on the
expectancy-disconfirmation theory (EDT). The EDT model has been proven to be useful for
understanding continued IS use across many different IS contexts such as mobile banking
(Susanto et al., 2016), computer-based training software (Bhattacherjee and Premkumar, 2004),
online shop ping (Moh amed et al., 2014), etc., and EDT alone normally accounts for 40-50
per cent of variance in continuance intention (Mohamed et al., 2014; Susanto et al., 2016). The
remainingvariance unexplained by the existing modelssuggests the existenceof other drivers
of continuance. One gap in the literature is that almost all models are retrospective.
Nonetheless, research in consumer behaviour has demonstrated that future-oriented mental
stimulation can substantially influence consumersbehaviour (Taylor et al., 1998), and affective
reactionsto anticipationmay be more intensethan retrospectionin some cases (Van Bovenand
Ashworth, 2007). It appears that incorporating the forward-looking perspective into IS
continuance models can be fruitful.
Industrial Management & Data
Vol. 118 No. 4, 2018
pp. 728-744
© Emerald PublishingLimited
DOI 10.1108/IMDS-06-2017-0261
Received 15 June 2017
Revised 9 September 2017
Accepted 14 October 2017
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
This study is supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
This perspective may partly explainwhy a user sticks to an IS despitelow satisfaction. For
example, onemay keep using an IS with occasional glitches if heor she is convinced that it is
continuously improvingand will perform better in the future.For mobile apps that are rapidly
evolving, theforward-looking perspective is even morerelevant. It is not uncommon for us to
come across online reviews of mobile apps like Can we not just getthe app to open & display
everythingquickly? Ive abouthad it waiting updateafter update to see if thenext one is better
[]. Comments like this usually come from long-term users who view the apps as relevant
and important to certain aspects of their lives or work. However, there are still obvious gaps
between theirdesired experience and thecurrent performance of theapp, which induces hope
for an improved version inthe future. Motivatedby the theoretical gapin the literature and the
real-life examples, this study attempts to integrate hope into the EDT. Specifically, hope is
hypothesised to moderate the positive impact of satisfaction on continuance intention.
In addition, perceived usefulness and importanceare posited as two important antecedents of
hope according to the appraisal theory of emotions (Lerner et al., 2015).
The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. The next section reviews literature on IS
continuance based on EDT and emotional experiences as well as the forward-looking
perspective. The Section 3 builds a theoretical model with seven hypotheses. The Section 4
presents the research methods including the design of survey instrument and data
collection procedures. After that, the theoretical model is empirically tested. The final
section discusses the results, the theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and
presents avenues for future research.
2. Literature review
This section firstsynthesise the literatureon IS continuance based on the EDT andemotional
experiencesduring IS usage; then a novel perspectivethat considers future-orientedfactors is
discussed and the notion of hope and its applications are reviewed.
2.1 Expectancy-disconfirmation theory
The EDT has prevailed in consumer satisfaction research since the 1970s (Oliver, 1980;
Dabholkar et al., 2000). Given the conceptual similarity between IS continuance and
consumer retention, Bhattacherjee (2001) adapted the EDT to the context of IS continuance
research. According to EDT, the formation of satisfaction starts with initial expectations
prior to use. After a direct experience with an IS, a performance perception is generated.
This is then compared with expectations to reach a judgment of disconfirmation which can
be any of the following three possibilities: positive disconfirmation, negative
disconfirmation, or zero disconfirmation (i.e. just confirmed). Positive disconfirmation
occurs when performance exceeds expectation, which generally leads to higher satisfaction.
Negative disconfirmation emerges when performance falls short of expectations, which is
likely to result in dissatisfaction. Zero disconfirmation means that the product or service
performs exactly as expected. In this case, the prior satisfaction level may be sustained.
One strength of the EDT model is that it accounts for the experience accumulated through
repeated use after initial adoption, and consequently the potential psychological and
behavioural changes that differentiate continuance from adoption (Bhattacherjee and
Premkumar, 2004). This model has been applied in diverse settings such as social network
sites (Chan et al., 2015), online shopping (Lin and Lekhawipat, 2014; Mohamed et al., 2014),
and smartphone banking services (Susanto et al., 2016).
2.2 Studies of emotions in IS
It is increasingly recognised among IS scholars that IS users are not always rational logical
beings (Zhang, 2013). The EDT model and the like only capture one side of the IS usage
the concept
of hope

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