I: Political Science: Method and Theory/Science Politique: Méthodes et Théories

Date01 August 2016
DOI10.1177/002083451606600401
Published date01 August 2016
423
I
POLITICAL SCIENCE : METHOD AND THEORY
SCIENCE POLITIQUE : MÉTHODES ET THÉORIES
66.4026 ABEYSINGHE, Sudeepa Ebola at the borders: news-
paper representations and the politics of border control.
Third World Quarterly 37(3), 2016 : 452-467.
As well as a site of politics and public health action, the outbreak of
Ebola in West Africa has been a focus of media representations. This
paper examines print media narratives around border control in relation
to Ebola in the UK, the US and Australia from the start of the epidemic to
May 2015. It shows that Ebola became mobilized as a frame through
which domestic politics could be discussed. The disease was trans-
formed from a problem for West Africa to a problem for the West. The
context of West Africa and affected populations was homogenized and
hidden. The focus of reporting centered upon domestic political actions
and more local sources of threat. [R] [See Abstr. 66.4948]
66.4027 ADAMSON, Fiona B. Spaces of global security: beyond
methodological nationalism. Journal of Global Security
Studies 1(1), Feb. 2016 : 19-35.
The changing political and social meanings of space under conditions of
advanced globalization point to the need to analyze security or the
deployment and management of violence as a socio-spatial practice.
This article draws attention to the “methodological nationalist” bias that
has traditionally characterized mainstream security studies, and discuss-
es its effect on how security issues are studied and conceptualized.
Building on insights from political geography and sociology, the article
makes the case for a “spatial turn” in the field. It demonstrates how a
socio-spatial approach can help make sense of evolving state security
practices, and presents examples of non-national spaces of security
including cities, cyberspace, and the global polity. Such spaces are
increasingly objects of security practices, although the implications of this
remain largely under-theorized in security studies. [R]
66.4028 AGUIRRE, Alvaro The risk of civil conflicts as a deter-
minant of political institutions. European Journal of Politi-
cal Economy 42, March 2016 : 36-59.
Under asymmetric and uncertain costs of civil conflicts, members of the
elite would like to commit in advance to a strong response to insurgen-
cies, but ex-post they have the incentives to block any response if the
conflict mainly affects other members of the elite. One way of solving this
commitment problem is empowering the executive so he may react
forcefully to conflicts, despite the opposition of some fraction of the elite.
The main prediction is that, conditional on asymmetric and uncertain
costs, the higher the likelihood of a conflict in the future, the lower are the
constraints imposed on the executive. The paper validates this implica-
tion using a sample of former colonies and geographic variables to
identify the exogenous component of the likelihood of conflicts. [R, abr.]
66.4029 AHRAM, Ariel I. Pro-government militias and the reper-
toires of illicit state violence. Studies in Conflict and Terror-
ism 39(3), March 2016 : 207-226.
Most studies of pro-government militias (PGMs) take a narrowly func-
tionalist approach. This article sees PGMs as the product of broader
processes of state-formation and regime dynamics that generate distinc-
tive repertoires of violence. The article uses a cross-national dataset to
shows that low state capacity is singularly correlated with the appear-
ance and activity of all forms of PGMs. Once militias are active, they tend
to endure even after initial conditions change, suggesting a strong
measure of path dependence in how states PGMs evolve. Democracy
curbs the activity of semi-official PGMs but not informal ones. Different
authoritarian regime sub-types have varying propensities for militia
activity. These findings have major implications for efforts to address
state frailty. [R]
66.4030 ALEXANDER, James The fundamental contradiction of
modern cosmopolitanism. European Legacy 21(2), March
2016 : 168-183.
This article argues that m odern cosmopolitanism depends on two postu-
lates which are contradictory. Cosmopolitans have always claimed,
“There are two cities, one higher and one lower”. Modern cosmopolitans,
however, claim, without abandoning the first postulate, “There is only one
city”. I ask four questions which enable the contradiction between these
to be illustrated. These are: is the cosmopolis the higher of two cities? Is
it a community of men and gods? What is the criterion of inclusion in it?
How free is one to be cosmopolitan? Along the way I clarify what I
consider the fundamental contradiction of modern cosmopolitanism to be
by distinguishing it from what I call the fundamental problem and the
fundamental paradox of cosmopolitanism. [R]
66.4031 ARBATLI, Cemal Eren ; ARBATLI, Ekim External threats
and political survival: can dispute involvement deter
coup attempts? Conflict Management and Peace Science
33(2), Apr. 2016 : 115-152.
Diversionary war theory holds that insecure leaders are more likely to
pursue aggressive foreign policies than their more secure counterparts.
This hypothesis rests on the premise that interstate dispute involvement
helps leaders deter potential challenges against their rule. We offer
strong support for this premise by looking at coup attempts. Cross-
national time-series evidence from interstate dispute participation over
the period 1960-2000 indicates that a country in a militarized confronta-
tion with another state is about 60% less likely to experience a coup
attempt in the subsequent year. Consistent with our hypothesis, we
establish that it is mainly militarized involvement in disputes, rather than
non-militarized involvement, that is associated with lower coup likelihood.
[R, abr.]
66.4032 ARMINGEON, Klaus ; GUTHMANN, Kai ; W EISSTANNER,
David Choosing the path of austerity: how parties and
policy coalitions influence welfare state retrenchment in
periods of fiscal consolidation. West European Politics
39(4), 2016 : 628-647.
What are the conditions under which some austerity programs rely on
substantial cuts to social spending? More specifically, do the partisan
complexion and the type of government condition the extent to which
austerity policies imply welfare state retrenchment? This article demon-
strates that large budget consolidations tend to be associated with
welfare state retrenchment. The findings support a partisan and a politi-
co-institutionalist argument: (1) in periods of fiscal consolidation, welfare
state retrenchment tends to be more pronounced under left-wing gov-
ernments; (2) since welfare state retrenchment is electorally and political-
ly risky, it also tends to be more pronounced when pursued by a broad
pro-reform coalition government. Therefore, the article shows that during
budget consolidations implemented by left-wing broad coalition govern-
ments, welfare state retrenchment is greatest. [R, abr.]
66.4033 ASAL, Victor ; DELOUGHERY, Kathleen ; M URDIE, Amanda
Responding to terrorism? Human rights organization
shaming and terrorist attacks. Studies in Conflict and Ter-
rorism 39(3), March 2016 : 240-259.
Why do Human Rights Organizations (HROs) target or “shame” coun-
tries for human rights abuses? The literature using country-level factors
to explain why one country is likely to be targeted over another is grow-
ing but many questions still remain. Te rrorist activity in a country should
have a positive effect on the amount of shaming directed at a country.
HROs are in the publicity business and have organizational interests to
shame states already receiving attention. Findings show that there is a
connection between certain types of transnational terrorist incidents
occur in a country and the amount of HRO shaming of governments,
even after accounting for the human rights practices within the state. [R]
66.4034 ATTWELL, Katie Ethnocracy without groups: concep-
tualising ethnocratiser states without reifying ethnic cat-
egories. Ethnopolitics 15(3), June 2016 : 303-318.
This article advances a non-groupist understanding of the foundation,
operation and self-perpetuation of states that scholars have hitherto
labeled ethnocracies or ethnic democracies. Such states create and
ignite zero-sum internal conflicts between portions of their populations.
They do so by demarcating the population into ethnic categories. They
apply labels to individuals and hierarchically order the categories to
which they are deemed to belong, awarding one cohort m ore privilege
than the other. Existing literature on such states has obscured the pro-
cesses by which states reify and institutionalize identity, instead present-
ing it through groupist frames in whic h ethnicity is a pre-existing variable.
Re-conceptualizing the doing of ethnicity as a process enables us to
study internal dissent against ethnic privilege and consider its transfor-
mational capacity in inspiring new nationalist discourses. [R]
Political science : method and theory
424
66.4035 BAGG, Samuel Between critical and normative theory:
predictive political theory as a Deweyan realism. Political
Research Quarterly 69(2), June 2016 : 233-244.
Over the last decade, a call for greater “realism” in political theory has
challenged the goals and methods implicit in much contemporary “nor-
mative” theory. However, realists have yet to produce a convincing
alternative research program that is “constructive” rather than primarily
“critical” in na ture. I argue that given their common wariness of a devo-
tion to abstract principles, realists should consider adopting John Dew-
ey’s vision of theoretical expertise as an expansive kind of prediction that
engages all of our historical, scientific, and imaginative resources. After
demonstrating that realists are in need of such an affirmative vision, I
outline Dewey’s original proposal, and elaborate its value in contempo-
rary circumstances as a “predictive” method for political theory that
stands between familiar critical and normative approaches. [R]
66.4036 BAGOZZI, B enjamin E. The baseline-inflated multino-
mial logit model for international relations research. Con-
flict Management and Peace Science 33(2), Apr. 2016 : 174-
197.
IR scholars are often interested in nominal dependent variables, and
commonly analyze such variables with multinomial logit (MNL) models
that treat status quo outcomes (e.g. “peace”) as a homogeneous base-
line-choice category. However, recent studies of zero-inflation processes
within IR suggest that some status quo responses are likely to corre-
spond to observations that actively opted for this choice over all others,
while the remaining status quo outcomes are likely to arise from observa-
tions that were unable to realistically register a non-status quo choice
under any reasonable circumstances. Including both sets of responses
within an MNL model’s baseline category can bias the estimated effects
of covariates, leading to faulty inferences. As a solution, this study
considers a recently proposed baseline-inflated MNL (BIMNL) model th at
explicitly estimates and tests for heterogeneous populations of status
quo observations. [R, abr.]
66.4037 BALDINI, Gianfranco Democracy, golden ages and
balancing acts Comment on M. Flinders, “The problem
with democracy". Parliamentary Affairs 69(2), Apr. 2016 :
451-463.
This article comments on M. Flinders [“The Problem with Democracy”,
ibid. 69(1), 2016: 181 -203; Abstr. 66.1440] with two main aims. The first
is to identify some indicators that can be used to assess comparatively
the significance of some of the seven problems identified by the author.
Then, having classified the latter in three main streams, the article
focuses on two of them, which I call respectively the “representative
linkage” and “governance mechanisms”. My argument is that the health
of democracy is related to complex balancing acts, whose dynamics
emerge in a long-term perspective, which allows some myths of “golden
ages” to be identified. [R]
66.4038 BAVEREZ, Nicolas Élie Halévy et L’Ère des tyrannies
(Elie Halevy and The Age of Tyranny). Commentaire 153,
Spring 2016 : 5-14.
Published in 1938, The Age of Tyranny is a heterogeneous book that
assembles studies, articles, and conference papers, published and given
by E. Halévy in France and in the UK, between 1908 and 1936. It is a
crucial book for the understanding of the tragic course of the 20th c. and
its ideological wars. It not only clashes with studies dedicated to the birth
of socialism in the early 20th c., but is in direct contact with current
events in the 1930s and sheds harsh light upon the new aspect of mod-
ern tyrannies with respect to the history of doctrines and the formidable
challenge they set to democracies.
66.4039 BAYER, Patrick ; URPELAINEN, Johannes It is all about
political incentives: democracy and the renewable feed-
in tariff. Journal of Politics 78(2), Apr. 2016 : 603-619.
Demand for renewable energy is booming. Scholars often attribute this
success to feed-in tariffs (FITs), which mandate that energy utilities pay a
premium to renewable electricity producers and guarantee grid access
for them. Why have so many countries, including least-developed ones,
adopted these policies? We hypothesize that democratic governments
have political incentives to adopt the FIT because it improves environ-
mental quality, promotes rural development, and distributes electricity
generation profits from large utilities to independent producers. We
analyze global data on FIT adoption, 19902012, and we find that the
association between democratic regime type and FIT adoption over-
whelms all other covariates. Consistent with theories of distributive
politics, among democracies, institutional malapportionment in favor of
rural political constituencies favors FIT adoption. [R, abr.]
66.4040 BEASLEY, Ryan Dissonance and decision-making
mistakes in the age of risk. Journal of European Public Pol-
icy 23(5), 2016 : 771-787.
Scholars of public and foreign policy have emphasized the role of deci-
sion processes in the creation of policy failures and fiascos and have
demonstrated the importance that psychological factors play in policy
mistakes. Using U. Beck's notion of world risk society and drawing on
advances in our understanding of a key psychological factor central to
decision-making pathologies cognitive dissonance this contribution
explores the ways in which features of the risk era could alter important
decision dynamics and increase decision-making mistakes. In combina-
tion with the catastrophic potential of world risk society, this would sug-
gest an increase in the frequency of policy-making fiascos. [R, abr.] [See
Abstr. 66.4050]
66.4041 BEIM, Deborah ; HIRSCH, Alexander V. ; KASTELLEC,
Jonathan P. Signaling and counter-signaling in the ju-
dicial hierarchy: an empirical analysis of En Banc review.
American Journal of Political Science 60(2), Apr. 2016 : 490-
508.
We leverage the institutional features of American courts to evaluate the
importance of whistleblowers in hierarchical oversight. Drawing on a
formal theory of signaling in the judicial hierarchy, we examine the role of
whistleblowing dissents in triggering en banc review of three-judge
panels by full circuits of the Courts of Appeals. The theory generates
predictions about how dissent interacts with judicial preferences to
influence circuits' review and reversal decisions, which we test using
original and existing data. First, we show that judges who dissent counter
to their preferences are more likely to see their dissents lead to review
and reversal. Second, we show that dissents are most influential when
the likelihood of non-compliance by a three-judge panel is highest. [R,
abr.]
66.4042 BERKENPAS, Josh “The behavioural revolution”? A
genealogy of a concept. European Political Science 15(2),
June 2016 : 233-250.
I illuminate the discursive evolution of the behavioral revolution in Ameri-
can political science through a “non-rhetorical” history of the behavioral
revolution. I examine the way the analytic construct of the behavioral
revolution evolved in the discourse of the discipline over time. I begin
with an illustrative example drawn from contemporary reference material
and then turn to an analysis of the writing of behavioralists authors in the
1950s and early 1960s: R. Dahl, H. Eulau, and D. Easton. I then discuss
the emergence of the behavioral revolution in the discourse of the disci-
pline more generally and contrast a proponent of behavioralism with a
critic. I discuss [how] contemporary disciplinary historians understand the
behavioral revolution. [R, abr.]
66.4043 BERRY, William D. ; DeMERITT, Jacqueline H.R. ; ESAREY,
Justin Bias and overconfidence in parametric models
of interactive processes. American Journal of Political Sci-
ence 60(2), Apr. 2016 : 521-539.
We assess the ability of logit, probit and numerous other parametric
models to test a hypothesis that two variables interact in influencing the
probability that some event will occur [Pr(Y)] in what we believe is a very
common situation: when one's theory is insufficiently strong to dictate a
specific functional form for the data-generating process. Using Monte
Carlo analysis, we find that many models yield overconfident inferences
by generating 95% confidence intervals for estimates of the strength of
interaction that are far too narrow, but that some logit and probit models
produce approximately accurate intervals. Yet all models we study
generate point estimates for the strength of interaction with large enough
average error to often distort substantive conclusions. We propose an
approach, but argue that nonparametric models may ultimately prove to
be superior. [R, abr.]
66.4044 BERTRAM, Christopher Realism, moralism, models and
institutions. Journal of International Political Theory 12(2),
June 2016 : 185-199.
This article distinguishes between three methodologies for thinking about
justice: principle-based, model-based and “realist”, concentrating mainly
on the differences between the first two. Both model-based and realist
approaches pride themselves on taking institutions seriously and argue
that institutions make a fundamental difference to justice. This claim is at
best not proven, and it may be possible to account for the difference that
institutions make to what justice requires while retaining a non-
institutional account of what justice is. [R] [See Abstr. 66.4195]
66.4045 BICCUM, April R. What might celebrity humanitarian-
ism have to do with empire? Third World Quarterly 37(6),
2016 : 998-1015.

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT