India : Pollution Control Policy and Programmes

AuthorO.P. Dwivedi
Publication Date01 June 1977
Date01 June 1977
DOI10.1177/002085237704300207
SubjectArticles
India :
Pollution
Control
Policy
and
Programmes
UDC
351.777.6:351.791.19(54)
by
O.P.
DWIVEDI,
Department
of
Political
Studies
,
University
of
Guelph
,
Canada
On
the
one
hand
the
rich
look
askance
at
our
continuing
poverty
-
on
the
other,
they
warn
us
against
their
own
methods.
We
do
not
wish
to
impoverish
the
environment
any
further
and
yet
we
cannot
for
a
moment
forget
the
grim
poverty
of
large
numbers
of
people.
Are
not
poverty
and
need
the
greatest
polluters ?
Indira
Gandhi,
UN
Conference
on
Human
Environment,
Stockholm
1972.
Environmental
pollution
problems,
especially
those
which
resulted
from
afflicted
water
causing
diseases,
were
identified
by
the
begin-
ning
of
this
century.
However,
a
relatively
cheap
and
safe
way
of
treating
the
drinking
water
-
by
chlorine
-
was
invented.
The
matter
rested
until
the
late
1950s
when
the
industrialized
nations
suddenly
faced
severe
health
and
recreational
dangers
from
various
industrial
and
consumerism
activities
of
the
people.
It
is
not
as
if
the
environmental
prob-
lems
emerged
all
of
a
sudden
from
nowhere.
The
increased
industrialization
and
urbaniza-
tion
did
saturate
the
assimilative
capacity
of
the
environment,
and
problems
became
more
visible.
Realizing
the
transnational
character-
istics
of
these
problems,
the
United
Nations
established
a
Scientific
Advisory
Committee
in
1968
to
consider
the
question
of
holding
a
conference
on
human
environment
-
later
held
in
Stockholm
in
June
1972.
While
all
industrialized
nations
showed
their
enthusiasm
for
it,
most
of
the
developing
countries
remain-
ed
skeptical
about
its
value,
believing
that
the
problem
was
largely
an
affliction
of
the
indus-
trially
developed
societies;
and
since
the
devel-
oping
countries
were
not
as
much
industrialized
and
urbanized,
the
problem
could
be
tackled
in
its
own
time.
Reports
produced
by
envi-
ronmental
groups
of
some
industrialized
nations
predicted
doom
for
mankind
and
suggested
&dquo; no
growth &dquo;
policy
as
a
viable
method
of
protecting
the
biosphere.
This
was
considered
by
some
developing
nations
as
a
conspiracy
by
the
industrialized
countries
to
control
the
process
of
industrialization,
thus
decelerating
the
efforts
of
developing
countries
to
remove
poverty.
These
sentiments
were
generally
shared
by
the
developing
countries
present
at
the
1972
Human
Environment
Conference
at
Stockholm.
The
Indian
Prime
Minister,
Mrs.
Indira
Gandhi,
while
addressing
the
Confer-
ence,
stated :
The
environmental
problems
of
developing
countries
are
not
the
side
effects
of
excessive
industrialization
but
reflect
the
inadequacy
of
development.
The
rich
countries
may
look
upon
development
as
the
cause
of
envi-
ronmental
destruction,
but
to
us
it
is
one
of
the
primary
means
of
improving
the
envi-
ronment
for
living,
or
providing
food,
water,
sanitation
and
shelter;
of
making
the
deserts
green
and
the
mountains
habitable
(1).
The
Prime
Minister
also
emphasized
that
for
a
vast
majority
of
the
world’s
population,
degradation
of
the
environment
is
not
merely
a
question
of
pollution
generated
by
industrial
activity;
rather
it
embraces
the
whole
concept
of
the
quality
of
human
life.
The
destruction
of
forests,
erosion
of
soils,
the
dereliction
of
(1)
"
Man
and
his
Environment",
address
by
Mrs.
Indira
Gandhi
at
the
plenary
session
of
UN
Conference
on
Human
Environment
at
Stockholm,
Sweden,
14
June
1972.

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