International Political Science Abstracts

DOI10.1177/0020834520963464
Date01 October 2020
Publication Date01 October 2020
SubjectAbstracts
633
I
POLITICAL SCIENCE : METHOD AND THEORY
SCIENCE POLITIQUE : MÉTHODES ET THÉORIES
70.6239 ABRAJANO, Marisa, et al. When campaigns call, who an-
swers? Using observational data to enrich our under-
standing of phone mobilization. Electoral Studies 64, Apr.
2020 : 1-11.
For decades, campaigns have used phone calls to move voters to the
polls. Political scientists have made great strides using field experiments
to study whether campaign calls effectively increase turnout. However,
due in part to limited access to observational data, some of the most basic
questions about this mobilization strategy have gone overlooked. We pro-
vide a rich descriptive analysis of a novel dataset of millions of campaign
phone calls made in California during the 2016 election. We use this da-
taset to shed light on three important questions: Whom do campaigns call?
When campaigns call, who answers? Are those who answer more likely to
turn out to vote? Our analysis reveals patterns consistent with previous
theories, but also sheds light on new patterns. [R, abr.]
70.6240 ACHILOV, Dilshod Analyzing the nexus of creativity, Is-
lam, and democracy: evidence from Turkey. Mediterranean
Politics 25(1), Feb. 2020 : 96-127.
While the relationship between Islam and democracy has received con-
siderable attention in the social science literature, very few studies have
explained the dynamics of support for democracy through a micro-level,
socio-psychological lens. Applying a novel perspective, this study ana-
lyzes the empirical nexus among Islamic religiosity, being open to new
ideas and creativity (ONIC), and pro-democratic attitudes to probe the fol-
lowing two questions: Are Muslims who are open to new ideas and think
creatively more supportive of democracy than those who are not? Could
ONIC be an intervening factor between religiosity and support for democ-
racy? To this end, the paper systematically (1) examines the interrelation-
ship between ONIC and Islamic religiosity; (2) estimates the effects thereof
on support for democracy; (3) assesses the mediating potential of ONIC
between devoutness and pro-democratic attitudes through an illustrative
case of Turkey. The findings indicate that ONIC and Islamic religiosity are
not mutually exclusive. [R, abr.]
70.6241 ÁDÁM, Zoltán Re-feudalizing democracy: an approach
to authoritarian populism taken from institutional eco-
nomics. Journal of Institutional Economics 16(1), Feb. 2020 :
105-118.
Political scientists have become concerned with the problem of authoritar-
ian populism, examining how illiberal, anti-pluralist populist parties have
degraded liberal democracies. Economic research on recent forms of pop-
ulism, although also growing, lack a comprehensive conceptual approach.
This paper reduces this gap by conceptualizing authoritarian populism in
terms of political transaction costs, arguing that its primary function is to
vertically integrate political exchange under conditions of general fran-
chise. If successful, authoritarian populist regimes internalize a large share
of political transaction costs inherent in decentralized democratic political
exchange. This entails a degraded version of democracy, eliminating a
significant part of substantial electoral choice. Through weakening imper-
sonal collective political contracting, authoritarian populists bring back pri-
vate political contracting as a dominant political coordination mechanism,
effectively re-feudalizing democracy. [R, abr.]
70.6242 AGERBERG, Mattias ; KREFT, Anne-Kathrin Gendered
conflict, gendered outcomes: the politicization of sexual
violence and quota adoption. Journal of Conflict Resolution
64(2-3), 2020 : 290-317.
Sexual violence (SV) in conflict is increasingly politicized at both the inter-
national and domestic levels. Where SV in conflict is prevalent, we argue
international actors perceive gender to be salient and push for a gendered
response. Simultaneously, women mobilize politically in response to the
threat to their security that conflict-related SV constitutes, making de-
mands for greater representation in politics with the goal of improving so-
cietal conditions for themselves. Jointly, we theorize the pressures from
above and below push governments in conflict-affected states toward
adopting gender policies. We test this theoretical framework in the case of
gender quota adoption. We find that states with prevalent wartime SV in-
deed adopt gender quotas sooner and at higher rates than states experi-
encing other civil conflicts and than states experiencing no conflict in the
same period. [R, abr.]
70.6243 AHVENHARJU, Sanna Potential for a radical policy-
shift? The acceptability of strong sustainable consump-
tion governance among elites. Environmental Politics 29(1),
2020 : 134-154.
This empirical small-n case study about the potential for a radical policy
shift towards strong consumption governance focuses on the opinions of
21 elite actors in positions of power and influence: members of parliament,
interest groups, government, and academia in Finland. The opinions gath-
ered by interviews and a survey focused on the acceptability of an 80%
reduction of household natural resource use by 2050, and the acceptability
of strong policy measures to realize that goal: quotas, high taxes, and
other controversial measures. The results revealed respondents’ high
awareness of overconsumption, their general willingness to consider new
consumption policy measures, and differences in opinions suggesting rifts
within the regime. This latent transformation potential and openness to
new policies enhances the need for further research, both in terms of pol-
icy development and policy acceptability. [R] [See Abstr. 70.6319]
70.6244 AJE, Oluwatobi ; CHIDOZIE, Felix Regional integration
and the neo-functionalist model: the Brexit narrative. Chi-
nese Political Science Review 5(1), March 2020 : 1-12.
The socio-economic and political advantages derived as benefits of the
integrative project have been the justification for most integrative initia-
tives. This has also made regional integration a major phenomenon in in-
ternational relations, both as a field of study and as a sphere of actual
relation. Many theories are paraded in scholarly circles explaining the ra-
tionale and process of the integrative project. However, little attention is
paid to the fact that, on the continuum of integration, retrogression and
disengagement is possible as social realities unfold. Using archival re-
search method, the work examines the relevance of the neo-functional
model in explaining recent trends on integration, using Brexit as a case
study. It contends that the neo-functionalist model still holds analytical pur-
chase in approximating contemporary trends of integration. [R]
70.6245 ALVEAR, Rafael ; HAKER, Christoph Kritische Sys-
temtheorie und Kritische Theorie sozialer Systeme. Ein
Plädoyer für eine fruchtbare Unterscheidung (Critical sys-
tem theory and critical theory of social systems. A plea for
a fruitful distinction). Leviathan 47(4), 2019 : 498-513.
Systems theory and critical theory are schools of thought that for a long
time have been familiar for theorists. During the period of their emergence,
there were several theoretical collisions between these two traditions of
thinking of society. The meta-reflection that is developed here makes it
possible to analyze how these theoretical traditions are connected. As the
current discussion is limited to the perspective of systems theory, it is nec-
essary to amplify the debate and to ask for a connection from the perspec-
tive of critical theory. Only through the distinction between critical system
theory, which is increasingly discussed today, and a critical theory of social
systems, which is barely discussed, we may be able to recognize the full
productivity of these theoretical collisions. [R, abr.]
70.6246 AMAN, Shahida State building interventions in post
Cold War period: a critique of "responsibility to protect"
and "humanitarianism". Review of Human Rights 2, Winter
2016 : 87-103.
This paper explores the concepts of humanitarianism and responsibility to
protect, which have most influentially guided state-building interventions
in the post Cold War period. With more than fifty states intervened in the
guise of ‘responsibility to protect,’ this paper analyzes why interventionist
state-building has developed as a major concern for the international state
system. It further delves into the impacts of such interventionist rationale
on the nature and functioning of the international state system. It argues
the rise of sovereignty as responsibility and humanitarianism challenged
the inviolable sovereignty of states by making it conditional on the govern-
ment’s exercise of monopoly over violence within its territory and exten-
sion of protection to its citizens against war, crimes, violence and blood-
shed. [R, abr.]
70.6247 ARCOS RAMÍREZ, Federico La transformación de la sol-
idaridad en un mundo global (The transformation of soli-
darity in a global world). Derechos y Libertades 42, Jan.
2020 : 93-124.
Political science : method and theory
634
Despite the widespread opinion that, particularly in the current context of
globalization and growing global interdependencies, the situations of ex-
ploitation, oppression and deprivation suffered by so many people justify
a much greater expansion of moral and political concern extra republican,
it has been questioned if it is appropriate to refer to this objective with the
term solidarity. This article exposes a positive answer to this question
when verifying, against the insistence of some political and social thinkers
that there is a single conception of this value (what I will name social or
communitarian), how it has undergone a transformation that allows us to
speak also of a global conception. The defense of this new way of under-
standing solidarity requires a more detailed study of its differences with
the social model. [R, abr.]
70.6248 BAK Daehee ; CHÁVEZ, Kerry ; RIDER, Toby Domestic
political consequences of international rivalry. Journal of
Conflict Resolution 64(4), Apr. 2020 : 703-728.
Cross-country studies have examined how interstate conflict events influ-
ence domestic politics. This article reevaluates the in-group and out-group
mechanisms by examining how international strategic rivalry, which indi-
cates the presence of persistent external threats even in the absence of
military conflict, affects domestic political competition. An alternative ex-
planation suggests that the effect of external threats on political incentives
of domestic actors differs between regime supporters and oppositions. We
posit that the presence of international threats from rival states inflames
domestic unrest and oppositions’ anti-regime challenges, while making
governments rely more on repressive tactics given resource constraints
and a high level of domestic political intolerance. In addition, we propose
that the domestic consequences of international rivalry are heterogeneous
depending on the characteristics of political systems and the level of threat
perception. [R, abr.]
70.6249 BAKKE, Kristin M. ; MITCHELL, Neil J. ; SMIDT, Hannah M.
When states crack down on human rights defenders.
International Studies Quarterly 64(1), 2020 : 85-96.
Research suggests that civil society mobilization together with the ratifica-
tion of human rights treaties put pressure on governments to improve their
human rights practices. An unexplored theoretical implication is that pres-
sure provokes counterpressure. Instead of improving treaty compliance,
some governments will have an interest in demobilizing civil society to si-
lence their critics. Yet we do not kn ow how and to what extent this incen-
tive shapes governments’ policies and practices regarding civil society or-
ganizations. We argue and show using a new global database of gov-
ernment-sponsored restrictions on civil society organizations that when
governments have committed to human rights treaties and, at the same
time, continue to commit severe human rights abuses, they impose re-
strictions on civil society groups to avoid monitoring and mitigate the inter-
national costs of abuses. [R]
70.6250 BARCELÓ, Joan Are western-educated leaders less
prone to initiate militarized disputes? British Journal of Po-
litical Science 50(2), Apr. 2020 : 535-566.
Recent theories on the causes of war focus on how institutional and struc-
tural factors shape leaders’ decisions in foreign policy. A growing number
scholars argue that leaders’ background experiences may matter for both
domestic and foreign policy choices. This article contributes to an emerg-
ing body of scholarship on leaders in international relations by showing
how personal attributes influence the initiation of militarized disputes.
Based on the soft power theory of international experiences and the im-
pressionable-years hypothesis of socialization, I theorize that leaders with
the experience of attending a university in a Western democratic country
should be less likely than non-Western-educated leaders to initiate milita-
rized interstate disputes. I test this proposition by employing a new da-
taset, building on Archigos and LEAD, that includes background attributes
of more than 900 leaders from 147 non-Western countries between 1947
and 2001. [R, abr.]
70.6251 BARKEMEYER, Ralf ; SALIGNAC, Fanny ; ARGADE,
Padmaja CSP [Corporate Social Performance] and gov-
ernance in emerging and developing country firms: of mir-
rors and substitutes. Business and Politics 21(4), 2019 : 540-
568.
A recent debate in the international CSR literature has focused on the
question whether CSR serves as a mirror or a substitute of country-level
governance. Advocates of the mirror view highlight the role of country level
institutions to drive corporate social performance (CSP) levels, whereas
proponents of the substitute view find companies to become more active
in light of governance gaps. We contribute to this debate by moving the
focus to a sample of 264 emerging economy and developing country com-
panies and by com paring the relationship between country-level govern-
ance and CSP based on three different CSP dimensions, namely, emis-
sions, human rights, and community performance. Whilst we find corpo-
rate emissions performance and human rights performance to align more
closely with the mirror view, there is some indication that corporate com-
munity performance instead acts as a substitute to fill institutional voids.
[R, abr.] [See Abstr. 70.6269]
70.6252 BARNEY, Jay B. ; HARRISON, Jeffrey S. Stakeholder the-
ory at the crossroads. Business and Society 59(2), Feb.
2020 : 203-212.
The stakeholder perspective has provided a rich forum for a variety of de-
bates at the intersection of business and society. Scholars gathered for
two consecutive years, first in North America, and then in Europe, to dis-
cuss the major issues surrounding what has come to be known as stake-
holder theory, to attempt to find common ground, and to uncover areas in
need of further inquiry. Those meetings led to a list of “tensions” and a call
for papers for this special issue to help address them. We introduce the
resulting articles and provide some brief commentary on their importance.
We end with a few of our own observations about the stakeholder per-
spective and stakeholder research. [R]
70.6253 BATTAMS, Samantha Neo-liberalism, policy incoher-
ence and discourse coalitions influencing non-communi-
cable disease strategy; comment on “How neoliberalism
is shaping the supply of unhealthy commodities and what
this means for NCD prevention”. International Journal of
Health Policy and Management 9(3), March 2020 : 116-118.
R. Lencucha and A. M. Thow [“How neoliberalism is shaping the supply of
unhealthy commodities and what this means for NCD prevention”, ibid.
8(9), 2019: 514-520] have highlighted the way in which neo-liberalism is
enshrined within institutional mechanisms and conditions the policy envi-
ronment to shape public policy on non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
They critique the strong (but important) focus of public health policy re-
search on corporate interests and influence over NCD policy, and point
toward neo-liberal policy paradigms shaping the relationship between the
state, market and society as an area for critique and further exploration. I
reflect upon how neoliberalism shapes intersectoral action across trade,
development and health within and across institutions. I also consider
scope for international civil society to engage in advocacy on NCDs, es-
pecially where elusive “discourse coalitions” influenced by neoliberalism
may exist, rather than coordinated “advocacy coalitions”. [R] [Commentary
on R. Lencucha, A. M. Thow, “How neoliberalism is shaping the supply of
unhealthy commodities and what this means for NCD prevention”. See
also Abstr. 70.6400, 6410]
70.6254 BENSON, Bruce L. The development and evolution of
predatory-state institutions and organizations: beliefs, vi-
olence, conquest, coercion, and rent seeking. Public
Choice 182(3-4), March 2020 : 303-329.
The purposes of this presentation are to (1) provide a relatively short co-
herent picture of predatory states, (2) pull some of North, Wallis and
Weingast’s important arguments, particularly from their discussion of “nat-
ural states”, into predatory state analysis, including their fundamental ele-
ments of “violence, organizations, institutions and beliefs”; and (3) criticize
the kinds of assumptions public-interest views rely on by using NWW’s
very public-interest and non-public-choice depiction of the “open access
order” as a way to reveal some of those assumptions. Even if states pro-
vide public goods, the primary focus for politicians appears to be on trans-
ferring wealth to themselves and/or to elites and interest groups. Most
states also have engaged in aggression to expand their jurisdictions. Pred-
atory-state theories focuses on wealth transfers and aggression. These
models explain states’ historical development and many observed state
actions. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 70.6428]
70.6255 BENZING, Bettina Whom you don't know, you don't
trust: vernacular security, distrust, and its exclusionary
effects in post-conflict societies. Journal of Global Security
Studies 5(1), Jan. 2020 : 97-109.
Arguments about the importance of vernacular security focus on its posi-
tive and inclusive potential for peacebuilding. Reflecting on the special
constitutional and sociopolitical challenges post-conflict societies face in
the aftermath of conflict, though, this article focuses on the way percep-
tions of security and security in the vernacular can exacerbate exclusion-
ary effects in post-conflict societies. I discuss current approaches to secu-
rity concepts dealing with social perceptions of (in)security and the link-
ages made in research between vernacular security and local peace. But
I also highlight exclusionary structures in post-conflict settings, which are
most often marked by distrustful social relations, as a byproduct of security
measures. [R, abr.]
70.6256 BERENS, Sarah ; GELEPITHIS, Margarita Welfare state
structure, inequality, and public attitudes towards pro-
gressive taxation. Socio-Economic Review 17(4), Oct. 2019 :
823-850.
Science politique : méthodes et théories
635
Recent research indicates that while higher tax levels are politically un-
popular, greater tax progressivity is not. However, little is known about how
individual attitudes towards tax progressivity are affected by their institu-
tional context. Building on existing theories of redistribution, this article de-
velops the argument that the structure of the welfare state shapes public
attitudes towards progressive taxation support for progressive taxation
among both average and high-income households is undermined by ‘pro-
poor’ welfare spending. We support our argument with a cross-sectional
analysis of rich democracies, interacting household income with country-
level indicators of welfare state structure. We contribute a micro-level ex-
planation for the paradoxical macro-level phenomenon that larger, more
redistributive welfare states tend to be financed by less progressive tax
systems. [R, abr.]
70.6257 BERNSTEIN, Sara The metaphysics of intersectionality.
Philosophical Studies 177(2), Feb. 2020 : 321-335.
This paper develops and articulates a metaphysics of intersectionality, the
idea that multiple axes of social oppression cross-cut each other. Though
intersectionality is often described through metaphor, theories of intersec-
tionality can be formulated using the tools of contemporary analytic meta-
physics. A central tenet of intersectionality theory, that intersectional iden-
tities are inseparable, can be framed in terms of explanatory unity. Further,
intersectionality is best understood as metaphysical and explanatory pri-
ority of the intersectional category over its constituents, akin to metaphys-
ical priority of the whole over its parts. [R]
70.6258 BJØRNSKOV, Christian ; VOIGT, Stefan When does ter-
ror induce a state of emergency? And what are the ef-
fects? Journal of Conflict Resolution 64(4), Apr. 2020 : 579-
613.
Given that a terror act has been committed, what are the factors that lead
governments to declare a state of emergency (SOE) or refrain from
declaring it? And given that a SOE has been declared, what are the effects
thereof? On the basis of seventy-nine countries all having Western-style
constitutions, we find that more terrorist incidents increase the likelihood
of a SOE. Interestingly, emergencies are less likely to be declared in elec-
tion years, supposedly because governments believe them to be unpopu-
lar. Once a SOE is declared, it generally leads to substantially more gov-
ernment repression. Finally, countries already under a SOE are more likely
to suffer from additional terror attacks, challenging the effectiveness of
states of emergency. [R, abr.]
70.6259 BLOOM, Pazit Ben-Nun, et al.Coping with moral threat:
moral judgment amid war on terror. Journal of Conflict Res-
olution 64(2-3), 2020 : 231-260.
Moral dilemmas amid war on terrorism include repeated harsh moral
choices, which often pose threats to one’s moral image. Given that people
strive to view themselves as moral, how do they cope with such morally
compromising decisions? We suggest and test two strategies to cope with
morally threatening decision-making under in-group moral responsibility
amid war on terrorism: (a) trivialization of the moral dilemma and (b) re-
sentment toward the target. Four experimental studies measured (study
1) and manipulated (studies 2-4) these hypothesized mechanisms, pre-
senting a similar collateral damage dilemma to Israeli Jews in the context
of the 2014 Gaza conflict (studies 1 and 2) and to Americans in the context
of the US campaign against Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) (studies
3 and 4). [R, abr.]
70.6260 BLÜHDORN, Ingolfur The legitimation crisis of democ-
racy: emancipatory politics, the environmental state and
the glass ceiling to socio-ecological transformation. Envi-
ronmental Politics 29(1), 2020 : 38-57.
The democratic legitimation imperative of the modern state has been con-
ceptualized as the barrier that stops the environmental state from devel-
oping into a green or eco-state and thus as the glass ceiling to a socio-
ecological transformation of capitalist consumer democracies. Here, I sug-
gest that this state-theoretical explanation of the glass ceiling needs to be
supplemented by an analysis of why democratic norms and procedures,
which had once been regarded as essential for any socio-ecological trans-
formation, suddenly appear as one of its main obstacles. I conceptualize
the new eco-political dysfunctionality of democracy as one dimension of a
more encompassing legitimation crisis of democracy which, in turn, has
triggered a profound transformation of democracy. Ultimately, exactly this
transformation constitutes the glass ceiling to the socio-ecological restruc-
turing of capitalist consumer societies. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 70.6319]
70.6261 BOETTKE, Peter J. ; CANDELA, Rosolino A. Productive
specialization, peaceful cooperation and the problem of
the predatory state: lessons from comparative historical
political economy. Public Choice 182(3-4), March 2020 :
331-352.
This paper reconceptualizes and unbundles the relationship between pub-
lic predation, state capacity and economic development. By reframing our
understanding of state capacity theory from a constitutional perspective,
we argue that to the extent that a causal relationship exists between state
capacity and economic development, the relationship is proximate rather
than fundamental. State capacity emerges from an institutional context in
which the state is constrained from preying on its citizenry in violation of
predefined rules limiting its discretion. When political constraints are not
established to limit political discretion, then state capacity will degenerate
from a means of delivering economic development to a means of preda-
tion. We investigate the priva tization of Russia following the collapse of
the Soviet Union; and the political unification of Sicily with the Italian pen-
insula following the Napoleonic Wars. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 70.6428]
70.6262 BONEFELD, Werner Ordoliberalism, European Mone-
tary Union and state power. Critical Sociology 45(7-8), Nov.
2019 : 995-1010.
The capitalist state’s class character is founded on the world market rela-
tions of capitalist wealth and includes a history of suffering. This article
scrutinizes ordoliberalism as a veritable statement about the character of
capitalist society and its state. In the contemporary debate about the
ordoliberalization of Europe, the ordoliberal argument about capitalist la-
bor economy as a practice of government is put aside and instead it is
identified with a certain ‘German’ preference for austerity and seemingly
also technocratic governance, undermining the European democracies
and leading to calls for the resurgence of the national democratic state that
governs for the many. In this argument illusion dominates reality. In dis-
tinction, the argument attempted here scrutinizes the role of the member
states in monetary union as executive states of the bond that unites them.
[R, abr.] [See Abstr. 70.6299]
70.6263 BOŠKOVIĆ, Aleksandar Anthropology and nationalism.
American Anthropologist 121(4), Dec. 2019 : 924-928.
I will here deal with an uneasy relationship between anthropology and na-
tionalism and to some of the perspectives and intellectual challenges that
world anthropological research brings for the future. I conclude with some
thoughts about the role of world anthropologies in understandings of our
contemporary world. [R] [See also Thomas REUTER, "Anthropology and
resurgent nationalism", pp? 928-929; and Ricardo A. FAGOAGA HER-
NÁNDEZ, "Against nationalism and the idea of auxiliary anthropologies",
pp. 932-933]
70.6264 BRAY, Daniel ; NAKATA, Sana The figure of the child in
democratic politics. Contemporary Political Theory 19(1),
March 2020 : 20-37.
This article argues that children play a constitutive role as temporary out-
siders who present both renewal and risk to the demos. Using Hannah
Arendt’s concept of natality, we begin with an ontological account of chil-
dren as new individuals that are central to renewing democratic freedom
and plurality. [Then] we explore how children can be conceived in terms
of political risk by focusing on Arendt’s debate with Ralph Ellison concern-
ing the desegregation of American schools in the 1960s. Their arguments
about whether children should appear in politics underscores the constitu-
tive role that child-adult relationships play in debates about the normative
fabric of democratic society. Finally, we use the radical democratic theory
of Chantal Mouffe to argue that children can be characterized as an ex-
cluded group of potential adversaries that appear in political contests over
claims to represent the demos. [R]
70.6265 BRECKMAN, Warren Persons as "symbols" and "carri-
ers": two modes of imagining the individual and society in
the nineteenth century. Tocqueville Review 40(2), 2019 : 65-
74.
In his mature systematic writings, Karl Marx pointedly restricted the dis-
cussion of individuals as such. Instead of discussing individual characters,
motivations, or desires, Marx treats people as ‘carriers’ (Träger) of social
relations. This essay contrasts this functional or structural approach to the
Romantic socialism of Pierre Leroux, who conceptualized the individual in
the symbolic terms defined by Romantic aesthetics. Though Marx’s reduc-
tion of individuals to their social function played a valuable role in the de-
velopment of his analysis of political economy, it has produced controversy
across many decades and presented problems for the political project de-
fined by Marxism. The Romantic conception of a symbolic intersection be-
tween the individual and society does not present a fully satisfying alter-
native to Marx, but this essay argues that it provides an important correc-
tive to the conception of persons as carriers of social relations. [R]
70.6266 BREINHOLT, Asta ; JAEGER, Mads Meier How does cul-
tural capital affect educational performance: signals or
skills? British Journal of Sociology 71(1), Jan. 2020 : 28-46.

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