Introducing knowledge management pattern at national level applying grounded theory method and fuzzy dematel

Publication Date14 August 2017
Date14 August 2017
AuthorPeyman Akhavan,Masoumeh Nabizadeh,Lila Rajabion
SubjectInformation & knowledge management,Knowledge management,Knowledge management systems
Introducing knowledge
management pattern at national
level applying grounded theory
method and fuzzy dematel
Peyman Akhavan and Masoumeh Nabizadeh
Department of Management, Malek Ashtar University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran, and
Lila Rajabion
University of South Florida, Sarasota, Florida, USA
Purpose Although there are some studiesabout knowledge management at national level, no integrated
attempts have been reported in the directionof introducing knowledge management pattern at national level
based on real experiences. Numerous researches have been conducted in the domain of knowledge
management at micro level. But at macro/national level, some concepts and components have been
investigatedbriey. The purpose of this paper is to deal with this gap.
Design/methodology/approach This research uses the hybrid method. The technique of
qualitative case study of grounded theory method has been selected in this research for gathering and
analyzing data. Data have been categorized and analyzed from case studies (at countries level) using the
steps of this method. The degree of correlation and causality and the importance of each concept existing
in the pattern have been computed by applying decision-making trial and evaluation(dematel) technique.
The obtained concepts and pattern could beapplied as a guide for accepting and implementing knowledge
management at national level.
Findings Total positive ndings have been obtained from case studies, and the authors attained 14
concepts and one pattern. These ndings provide the steps of designing and are useful in implementing
projects and programs of knowledge management at national level. The degree of correlation between the
componentsof the pattern is the other nding of this study.
Practical implications The obtained concepts and patterns can be used as a guide in countries and
governments which decide to implementknowledge management at national level. These can be a basis for
countrieswhich are in the process of implementing the projects of knowledge managementat national level.
Originality/value This research is the rst study that aims to provide the pattern of knowledge
management at national level and can provideuseful information for countries and governments and can be
used as a reference to guide them for the implementation. So these countries will be able to design and
implementtheir programs of knowledge management purposefully.
Keywords Knowledge-based society, Fuzzy dematel, Grounded theory method,
Knowledge management at national level, Macro level,
Paper type Research paper
In the modern age, knowledge has been recognized as the most important competitive
advantage among organizationsas well as countries. Therefore, management of knowledge
and intellectual capitals are necessary and inevitable. Regarding the high rate of changes
and the growth of producing data and information in modern age, countries have realized
Received 13 May 2016
Revised 1 November 2016
22 February 2017
Accepted 24 March 2017
VINEJournal of Information and
KnowledgeManagement Systems
Vol.47 No. 3, 2017
pp. 372-394
© Emerald Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/VJIK MS-05-2016-0022
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
that they will not be able to act with traditional methods and must seek new management
Many countries as well asorganizations have realized the importance of informationand
communication technology and knowledgemanagement in obtaining the results and try to
implement knowledge management in their country to reach their objectives at national
level such as attaining a knowledge-basedcountry and economy (Talisayon, 2008,p.295).In
fact, regarding competitive conditions of modern world and changing economy conditions
and passing through industrial economy and movingtoward knowledge-based economy, it
is necessary to emphasize on knowledgecapitals and wealth-obtaining through them.
In future, the people who havethe latest and up-to-date knowledge and the people being
more diligent in the directionof acquiring and creating this knowledge will be able to reach
the highest place in the organizations(Zhao et al., 2012, p. 4). As intangible asset is the most
important asset of countries, especially in developed countries, and as this asset is usedfor
reaching desirable societal and economic conditions, the aim of this study is to provide a
pattern for implementing knowledge management at national level and to measure the
degree of correlations and importanceamong concepts existing in the pattern, which can be
a guide for implementing knowledge managementat national level in countries. This study
can help leaders manage assets and knowledge at national level which is also known as
macro level in some references. In the next sectionof this paper, we will deal with literature
review, research methods,discussions and conclusions.
Literature review
Regarding the studies, despite the vast investigations of knowledge management at
organizational level and the existenceof numerous models of it at micro level, this issue has
not been investigated systematically at national level, and only some impressive concepts
and components have beenconsidered. In the rest of the article, some of these studieswill be
investigated. In studies by Kapyla entitled toward a critical societal knowledge
management, the aim is to overcome the problem of societalknowledge management. So in
this direction, the analysis of national intellectual capital has been emphasized upon as a
part of societal knowledge management. From the opinion of the writer, disclosure of
national capital is the rst necessityin implementing societal knowledge management.
National intellectual capital is a basis for developing national strategy and societal
knowledge management and can be applied as an analytical tool by policy makers and
governmental ofcials. It also is a starting point for societal knowledge management. Also
for goal setting and policymaking in a knowledge-based society, it is necessaryto recognize
national intellectual capital(Käpylä, 2012, p. 289). Kapyla describes the steps of obtaining a
model of societal knowledge management for societies and discusses that it is necessary
rst to determine nationalstrategy, perspective, objectives, values and hypothesis,and then
we must recognize and measure national intellectual capital. Finally, a pattern of societal
knowledge managementis considered for a society (Käpylä, 2012, p. 297).
Website knowledge management of national governance: knowledge management,
conformity and complexities(Pearson, 2008, section 15th) investigates the way of
implementing knowledge management at national level. Article Knowledge management
national policies for moving toward knowledge based development: a comparison between
micro and macro levelby Akhavan et al. (2006, p. 467) investigates the differences of
knowledge management at micro and macro levels. Article Essential changes for
knowledge management establishment in a country: a macro perspective(Jafari and
Akhavan, 2007, p. 89) refers to the essential changes for establishing knowledge
management in a country.
theory method
and fuzzy

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