Kaizen: working responsively with psychopathic traits

Date17 September 2018
Publication Date17 September 2018
AuthorSarah Anne Henfrey
SubjectHealth & social care,Criminology & forensic psychology
Kaizen: working responsively with
psychopathic traits
Sarah Anne Henfrey
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Kaizen, an accredited offending behaviour
programme designed for high risk and need offenders within Her Majestys Prison and Probation Service
(HMPPS), lends itself to responsive delivery with those meeting the criteria for psychopathy.
Design/methodology/approach The paper describes how the theoretical rationale and model of change
underpinning Kaizen can be applied to those with high levels of psychopathic traits given the available
literature in this area.
Findings It is argued that Kaizen is applicable to those meeting the criteria for psychopathy.
Research limitations/implications As a contemporary intervention, the efficacy of Kaizen in its ability to
support participants in their journey towards desistance and therefore to contribute to the service wide aim of
reducing reoffending is yet to be evaluated. In turn, its applicability to those meeting the criteria for
psychopathy is yet to be explored.
Practical implications This paper lends support to the applicability of Mann and Carters (2012) six
organising principles of programme design in the treatment of high risk, high need offenders who meet the
criteria for psychopathy. It encourages practitioners to consider Kaizen as a possible intervention option for
this population and offers guidance as to how the programme might be used to best effect. The paper also
highlights the importance of evaluating the efficacy of participation in Kaizen for this population.
Originality/value In time, Kaizen will replace Chromis as the offer by Intervention Services (HMPPS)
for high risk offenders with a high level or combination of psychopathic trait. This paper describes this
forthcoming change in approach and the rationale underpinning it.
Keywords Psychopathy, Kaizen, Treatment, Offenders
Paper type Viewpoint
The literaturerelating to what worksin offender rehabilitation is continually evolving and inrecent
years there has been a substantial growth of support for strengths based, future focussed
approaches designed to adhere to the principles of risk, need and responsivity (Bonta and
Andrews, 2007). Desistance (e.g. Farrall and Calverley, 2005), the development of non-offending
identities (Maruna,2001), and the importance of working in a trauma informedmanner (Harris and
Fallot, 2001) havealso emerged as being critical. With this literature in mind, Kaizen was designed
for use withinher Majestys Prison and ProbationService (HMPPS) in Englandand Wales. Kaizen is
an accreditedoffending behaviour programmedesigned to supporthigh risk and need adult males
in their journey towards desistance. Enabling an individualised approach within a group
environment, Kaizen adopts a unified methodology that can accommodate the variable
criminogenic needs associated with this population, including both those who have committed
violent and sexual offences. It replaces previous programmes such as the Sexual Offending
Treatment Programme (SOTP), the Healthy Relationships Programme and the Self-Change
Programme and in doing ensures that accredited programme provision incorporates the most
contemporary literature within its design. Support for the re-development of such programmes
was more recentlyhighlighted in an evaluationstudy of the Core SOTP, which found that eitherthis
programme did notreduce sexual reoffending as intended( Mewset al., 2017) or that the research
methodology adopted failed to identify the true impact of the programme.
Received 3 November 2017
Revised 8 February 2018
Accepted 9 April 2018
Sarah Anne Henfrey is based at
the Intervention Services, part
of the Equalities, Interventions
and Operational Practice
Group, Her Majestys Prison
and Probation Service,
London, UK.
DOI 10.1108/JCRPP-11-2017-0034 VOL. 4 NO. 3 2018, pp.199-211, © Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 2056-3841

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