Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act 1870

JurisdictionUK Non-devolved
Citation1870 c. 46


Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act, 1870

(33 & 34 Vict.) CHAP. 46.

An Act to amend the Law relating to the Occupation and Ownership of Land in Ireland.

[1st August 1870]

W HEREAS it is expedient to amend the law relating to the occupation and ownership of land in Ireland:

Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:

I Law of Compensation to Tenants.

PART I.

Law of Compensation to Tenants.

Claim to Compensation.

Claim to Compensation.

S-1 Legality of Ulster tenant-right custom.

1 Legality of Ulster tenant-right custom.

1. The usages prevalent in the province of Ulster, which are known as, and in this Act intended to be included under, the denomination of the Ulster tenant-right custom, are hereby declared to be legal, and shall, in the case of any holding in the province of Ulster proved to be subject thereto, be enforced in manner provided by this Act.

Where the landlord has purchased or acquired or shall hereafter purchase or acquire from the tenant the Ulster tenant-right custom to which his holding is subject, such holding shall thenceforth cease to be subject to the Ulster tenant-right custom.

A tenant of a holding subject to the Ulster tenant-right custom, and who claims the benefit of such custom, shall not be entitled to compensation under any other section of this Act; but a tenant of a holding subject to such custom, but not claiming under the same, shall not be barred from making a claim for compensation, with the consent of the Court, under any of the other sections of this Act, except the section relating to compensation in respect of payment to incoming tenant; and where such last-mentioned claim has been made, and allowed, such holding shall not be again subject to the Ulster tenant-right custom.

S-2 Legality of tenant custom other than Ulster custom.

2 Legality of tenant custom other than Ulster custom.

2. If, in the case of any holding not situate within the province of Ulster, it shall appear that an usage prevails which in all essential particulars corresponds with the Ulster tenant-right custom, it shall in like manner, and subject to the like conditions, be deemed legal, and shall be enforced in manner provided by this Act.

Where the landlord has purchased or acquired or shall hereafter purchase or acquire from the tenant the benefit of such usage as aforesaid to which his holding is subject, such holding shall thenceforth cease to be subject to such usage.

A tenant of any holding subject to such usage as aforesaid, and who claims the benefit of the same, shall not be entitled to claim compensation under any other section of this Act; but a tenant of a holding not claiming the benefit of such usage shall not be barred from making a claim for compensation with the consent of the Court under any of the other sections of this Act, and where such last-mentioned claim has been made and allowed, such holding shall not be again subject to such usage as aforesaid.

S-3 Compensation in absence of custom.

3 Compensation in absence of custom.

3. Where the tenant of any holding held by him under a tenancy created after the passing of this Act is not entitled to compensation under sections one and two of this Act, or either of such sections, or if entitled does not seek compensation under said sections or either of them, and is disturbed in his holding by the act of the landlord, he shall be entitled to such compensation for the loss which the Court shall find to be sustained by him by reason of quitting his holding, to be paid by the landlord, as the Court may think just, so that the sum awarded does not exceed the scale following; that is to say,

In the case of holdings valued under the Acts relating to the valuation of rateable property in Ireland at an annual value of—

(1) (1.) 10 and under, a sum which shall in no case exceed seven years rent;

(2) (2.) Above 10 and not exceeding 30, a sum which shall in no case exceed five years rent;

(3) (3.) Above 30 and not exceeding 40, a sum which shall in no case exceed four years rent;

(4) (4.) Above 40 and not exceeding 50, a sum which shall in no case exceed three years rent;

(5) (5.) Above 50 and not exceeding 100, a sum which shall in no case exceed two years rent;

(6) (6.) Above 100 a sum which shall in no case exceed one year's rent;

But in no case shall the compensation exceed the sum of 250.

Any tenant in a higher class of the scale may, at his option, claim compensation under a lower class, provided such compensation shall not exceed. the sum to which he would be entitled under such lower class on the assumption that the annual value of his holding is reduced to the sum (or where two sums are mentioned, the highest sum) stated in such lower class, and that his rent is proportionally reduced.

Provided that no tenant of a holding valued at a yearly sum exceeding 10, and claiming under this section more than four years rent, and no tenant of a holding valued at a yearly sum not exceeding 10, and claiming as aforesaid more than five years rent, shall be entitled to make a separate or additional claim for improvements other than permanent buildings and reclamation of waste land.

Provided that—

(1) (1.) Out of any moneys payable to the tenant under this section all sums due to the landlord from the tenant or his predecessors in title in respect of rent, or in respect of any deterioration of a holding arising from non-observance on the part of the tenant of any express or implied covenant or agreement, may be deducted by the landlord, and also any taxes payable by the tenant due in respect of the holding, and not recoverable by him from the landlord:

(2) (2.) A tenant of a holding who at any time after the passing of this Act subdivides such holding, or sublets the same or any part thereof without the consent of the landlord in writing, or, after he has been prohibited in writing by the landlord or his agent from so doing, lets the same or any part thereof in conacre, save for the purpose of being solely used and which shall be solely used for the growing of potatoes or other green crops, the land being properly manured, shall not, nor shall any sub-tenant of or under any such tenant as last aforesaid, be entitled to any compensation under this section:

(3) (3.) A tenant of a holding under a lease made after the passing of this Act, and granted for a term certain of not less than thirty-one years, shall not be entitled to any compensation under this section, but he may claim compensation under section four of this Act.

The tenant of any holding valued under the Acts relating to the valuation of rateable property in Ireland at an annual value of not more than one hundred pounds, and held by him under a tenancy from year to year existing at the time of the passing of this Act, shall, if disturbed by the act of his immediate landlord, be entitled to compensation under and subject to the provisions of this section.

Any contract made by a tenant by virtue of which he is deprived of his right to make any claim which he would otherwise be entitled to make under this section shall, so far as relates to such claim, be void, both at law and in equity; this provision shall be subject to the enactment contained in the section of this Act relating to the partial exemption of certain tenancies, and remain in force for twenty years from the first day of January one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, and no longer, unless Parliament shall otherwise determine.

S-4 Compensation in respect of improvements.

4 Compensation in respect of improvements.

4. Any tenant of a holding who is not entitled to compensation under sections one and two of this Act, or either of such sections, or if entitled does not make any claim under the said sections, or either of them, may on quitting his holding, and subject to the provisions of section three of this Act, claim compensation to be paid by the landlord under this section in respect of all improvements on his holding made by him or his predecessors in title.

Provided that—

(1)Exception of certain improvements. (1.) A tenant shall not be entitled to any compensation in respect of any of the improvements following; that is to say,—

(a. ) In respect of any improvement made before the passing of this Act, and twenty years before the claim of such compensation shall have been made, except permanent buildings and reclamation of waste land; or,

(b. ) In respect of any improvement prohibited in writing by the landlord as being and appearing to the Court to be calculated to diminish the general value of the landlord's estate, and made within two years after the passing of this Act, or made during the unexpired residue of a lease granted before the passing of this Act; or,

(c. ) In respect of any improvement made either before or after the passing of this Act in pursuance of a contract entered into for valuable consideration therefor; or,

(d. ) (Subject to the rule in this section mentioned as to contracts) in respect of any improvement made, either before or after the passing of this Act, in contravention of a contract in writing not to make such improvement; or,

(e. ) In respect of any improvement made either before or after the passing of this Act which the landlord has undertaken to make, except in cases where the landlord has failed to perform his undertaking within a reasonable time:

(2)Exception of certain tenancies.. A tenant of a holding under a lease or written contract made before the passing of this Act shall not be entitled on being disturbed by the act of the landlord in or on quitting his holding to any compensation in respect of any improvement, his right to which compensation is expressly excluded by such lease or contract:

(3) (3.) A tenant of a holding...

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