Lessons learned during Covid-19 concerning cheating in e-examinations by university students

DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-05-2021-0105
Published date28 June 2021
Date28 June 2021
Pages506-518
Subject MatterAccounting & finance,Financial risk/company failure,Financial crime
AuthorMaria Krambia Kapardis,George Spanoudis
Lessons learned during Covid-19
concerning cheating in
e-examinations by
university students
Maria Krambia Kapardis
School of Management and Economics,
Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus, and
George Spanoudis
Department of Psychology,
University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
Abstract
Purpose The researchersaim to investigatehow students can be deterredfrom cheating, whether legal or
ethical policiesand procedures are effective and whether there are gender differences.
Design/methodology/approach Using data on students undertaking midterm and f‌inal e-
examinations, as well as a control group of students who were caught cheating in an online mid-semester
examination,the authors attempt to answer the research questions.
Findings No differences were found in cheating in terms of studentsgender or whether theywere repeating
a course or not. However, the study revealed that if there are more internalcontrols imposed and if before the
examination students are madeto reinforce their academic integrity, e-examination cheating is reduced.
Originality/value No other published study was carried out with students who were involved in
cheating.
Keywords Covid-19, e-examination, Cheating, Fraud, Academic integrity
Paper type Research paper
Introduction
One could argue that going to university and obtaining a degree is not about schooling,
passing examinations, academic progress and attainment of a qualif‌ication, it is about
paideia. In the culture of ancient Greece and later of the Greco-Roman, the term paideia
referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis or State. Thus, the
focus or the outcome of going to university is the road to Ithaka and one ought not to try to
f‌ind quick-f‌ix methods by cheating. In fact, Peculean and Peculea (2020) advocate that
universities shouldhave a simultaneous inf‌luence on the developmentof studentsthrough
their intellectual developmentby contributing to the prosperity of society and in addressing
their moral competences (p. 30). The Covid-19 pandemic has not only created opportunities
for internet fraud (Fei Ma and McKinnon, 2022), romance fraud (Buil-Gil and Zeng, 2022)
and other types of fraud (ACCC, 2021) but has, also, created uncertainty about the status of
student learning outcomes (Kinzie, 2020) and, at the same time, opportunities were created
for students to cheat the system. Justlike fraudsters, students always will try to f‌ind ways to
cheat. For its part, a university will endeavour to implement controls as in the cases
highlighted by Baijnath and Singh (2019) that occurred in Uganda, The Netherlands,
JFC
29,2
506
Journalof Financial Crime
Vol.29 No. 2, 2022
pp. 506-518
© Emerald Publishing Limited
1359-0790
DOI 10.1108/JFC-05-2021-0105
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
https://www.emerald.com/insight/1359-0790.htm

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