THE FINANCE OF GRANT‐AIDED SCHOOLS IN SCOTLAND*

Publication Date01 June 1967
Date01 June 1967
AuthorBarbara MacLennan
DOIhttp://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9485.1967.tb00764.x
THE
FINANCE OF
GRANT-AIDED
SCHOOLS
IN
SCOTLAND*
BARBARA MACLEIWAN
1.
Introduction
THE direct grant schools, in England and Wales, have once more
become
a
public issue in recent debate
on
the comprehensive re-
organisation
of
secondary education.’ Any change in the direct grant
system would be likely to affect the similar grant-aided schools in
Scotland and would have financial implications, to predict which
a
study of the present financial structure of these Scottish schools
is
desirable.
With this end in view, the present study after providing some in-
stitutional background (section
11).
offers
an
economic analysis of the
current expenditure and cost structure
of
grant-aided schools (section
III),
their capital expenditure (section IV). and the sources
of
revenue
on both income account (section
V)
and capital account (section VI).
Where possible and relevant, comparisons are made with education
authority schools.
A
final section offers some tentative conclusions.
11.
The
Institutional Background
This study deals with the
29
schools, operating under the Grant-
Aided Secondary Schools (Scotland) Grant Regulations,
1959,’
which
*The author is a member
of
the staff
of
the Institute of Social and
Economic Research, University
of
York. She wishes to thank Professors Pea-
cock and Wiseman. Mr.
S.
s.
Han and Mr.
R.
J. Lavers
for
help given in the
preparation of this article. Special thanks are also due for the valuable criti-
cism by Dr. John Highet, University of Glasgow, who is at present engaged
in the preparation of a book on fee-paying education in Scotland. The study,
which is one of a series sponsored by the Institute and the Unit for Statistical
and Economic Studies
of
Education, London School
of
Economics, is being
financed by the Scottish Education Department whose generosity and help
with this study are gratefully acknowledged.
They were also a subject of discussion when the terms
of
reference of the
Public Schools Commission were being decided.
For
examples
see
The Times,
30th September, 1965,29th December, 1965,8th January, 1966,4th March, 1966,
16th November, 1966;
The Guardian.
15th December, 1965 and 28th January,
1966;
The
Observer,
10th July, 1966;
The
GIasgow
Herald,
12th December, 1966.
Comprehensive re-organisation necessarily involves the direct grant schools
in
England and Wales to a greater degree than their Scottish counter arts
for
while the former are obliged to take 25
per
cent. of their pupils from the
maintained sector, the local education authorities paying their fees, the latter
in
general
are unrestricted in their choice of pupils and there is little necessary
contact between the Scottish education authoriues and the grant-aided schools.
a
Until 1959-60 there were only
I5
schools receiving their grant directly
from the Scottish Education Department. Another 14 ‘independent’ schools
received contributions from the education authorities which were in turn re-
imbursed in full by the Department from the Education (Scotland) Fund. This
arrangement was terminated in 1959 on the introduction of the General Grant
and the latter schools were put on the same basis as the former, to produce
the present total of 29.
156
THE FINANCE
OF
GRANT-AIDED SCHOOLS
IN
SCOTLAND
157
occupy roughly the same position within the school system as do the
direct grant schools in England and Wales, being outside the sphere
of education authority management yet, to
a
considerable extent, de-
pendent on public funds. They educate 19,000 pupils, i.e. only 2.2 per
cent. of Scottish school children3 but 4.1 per cent. of secondary school
pupils (a mere 1.2 per cent. of primary school pupils receive education
in grant-aided schools) which compares with 3.3 per cent.
of
secondary
school pupils in direct grant grammar schools in England and Wales.
A wider use of the term ‘grant-aided schools’ would include the
demonstration schools attached to teacher training institutions as well
as residential special schools and orphanages. The number
of
pupils
in the grant-aided school sector
in
1964/65 was thus as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Secondary
(fee-paying) Schools 18,553
Secondary
(Non-fee-paying) Schools 807
Demonstration Schools 2.100
Residential Special Schools 687
Orphanages 192
22,339
Only those in the first two categories are dealt with in this paper.
Also excluded is the set of fee-paying schools of education authori-
ties: which do not,
of
course, receive a direct grant from the Scottish
Education Department. Like the grant-aided schools, however, they
receive income from public and private sources but their fees are in
general much lower than those in the grant-aided schools
so
that the
proportion of their funds coming from private sources is quite
Currently they educate about
18,OOO
pupils but there has been a
steady and continuing contraction
in
the number of fee-paying
education authority schools as fees have gradually been abolished in
them.
Although invariably referred to as the grant-aided
secondary
schools, all but one of the 29 Scottish schools have primary depart-
Excluding children at Special and Approved Schools.
‘The existence of these schools in Scotland, which avoids the dichotomy
that exists in England and Wales between fee-paying schools, on the one hand,
and free local education authority schools, on the other affects the attitudes
both
of
those in the Scottish grant-aided schools and those concerned with
public policy. It should be noted that official statistics sometimes do not dis-
tinguish figures relating to the grant-aided schools from those relating to the
state schools in general.
In schools which have both primary and secondary departments, it is
estimated that
10
to
15
per cent.
of
total income comes from
fees.

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