V International Relations / Relations Internationales

Published date01 June 2022
Date01 June 2022
DOI10.1177/00208345221106546
417
V
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
RELATIONS INTERNATIONALES
(a) International law, organization and administration/Droit international, organisation et administration in ternationales
72.3911 AKLIN, Michaël ; KERN, Andreas The side effects of Cen-
tral Bank independence. American Journal of Political Sci-
ence 65(4), Oct. 2021 : 971-987.
Central bank independence (CBI) solves the time inconsistency problem
faced by policymakers with respect to monetary policy. However, it does
not solve their underlying incentives to manipulate the economy for politi-
cal gains. Unable to use monetary policy, and often limited in their ability
to use fiscal spending, governments can resort to financial deregulation to
generate short-term political benefits. We show qualitatively and quantita-
tively that governments systematically weaken financial regulations in the
aftermath of CBI, and that the effect of CBI is separate from an ideological
shift toward liberalization. Our findings suggest that the growing financial-
ization of the economy experienced by many countries over the last few
decades is partly a by-product of central bank independence. [R]
72.3912 BABIN, Mihajlo, et al. Assessment of the true origins of
fiscal decentralisation in the selected EU member states.
Lex Localis (Journal of Local Self Government) 19(3), July
2021 : 569-586.
Goals and potential effects of fiscal decentralisation have been analysed
in numerous scientific papers and studies. Empirical data shows different
or even contradictory results of fiscal decentralisation expansion even
though fiscal decentralisation is based on a solid theoretical framework.
Fiscal decentralisation might have a positive impact on investment, GDP
growth, quality enhancement of healthcare, education and social protec-
tion. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence whether
fiscal decentralisation was primarily led by the economic or political ra-
tionale in the selected EU member states — 11 CEE and SEE countries.
The EU integration process created a pressure on new member states
which joined the EU between 2004 and 2013 to implement fiscal decen-
tralisation policies.[R, abr.]
72.3913 BERENTS, Helen ; MOLLICA, Caitlin Reciprocal institu-
tional visibility: youth, peace and security and "inclusive"
agendas at the United Nations. Cooperation and Conflict
57(1), March 2022 : 65-83.
Within the architecture of the UN, formal recognition of the contributions of
historically marginalised individuals and communities to peacebuilding de-
notes a positive shift in rhetoric and practice. Alongside broader institu-
tional moves towards ‘sustaining peace’; the emergence of a ‘Youth,
Peace and Security’ agenda since 2015 formalises attention to youth as
positive contributors to peacebuilding and in responding to violence. This
article situates the Youth, Peace and Security agenda within broader in-
stitutional and academic attention on ‘inclusive peace’. It considers the on-
going challenges in legitimising youth inclusion; and positions this emer-
gent agenda in relation to the gains made by the Women, Peace and Se-
curity agenda, and the establishment of the UN’s sustaining peace
agenda. These explorations demonstrate the value of considering the evo-
lution of inclusive peace agendas together, while remaining mindful of their
distinctive characteristics, to better understand the potential of inclusive
approaches to peace. [R, abr.]
72.3914 BINDER, Martin ; LOCKWOOD PAYTON, Autumn With
frenemies like these: rising power voting behavior in the
UN General Assembly. British Journal of Political Science
52(1), Jan. 2022 : 381-398.
Existing accounts argue that the rising powers are a heterogenous group
of competing states and that they are socialized into the existing Western-
centered order. This article challenges these claims, arguing that the rising
powers are dissatisfied with the international status quo and that they have
begun to form a bloc against the established powers. The authors contend
that this dissatisfaction arises from their lack of influence on the interna-
tional stage, their status in the international hierarchy and the norms that
sustain the current international order. They maintain that the formation of
a rising powers bloc is driven by the countries’ economic growth and inter-
national dynamics, fostering their institutionalization as IBSA (India, Brazil,
South Africa) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). [R,
abr.]
72.3915 CLARK, Richard Pool or duel? Cooperation and compe-
tition among international organizations. International Or-
ganization 75(4), Fall 2021 : 1133-1153.
International organizations (IOs) increasingly pool resources and exper-
tise. Under what conditions do they pool rather than compete when their
activities overlap? Drawing on elite interviews, I argue that even though
many cooperation decisions are made by staff possessing high degrees of
autonomy from member state principals, IOs are more likely to pool re-
sources when their leading stakeholders are geopolitically aligned. Re-
gardless of whether member states directly oversee the negotiation of
these arrangements, staff design policies that are amenable to major
stakeholders. I test this argument with regression analysis of an original
data set that documents patterns of co-financing and information sharing
among IOs in the development issue area. I further supplement these tests
with an elite survey experiment deployed via LinkedIn to bureaucrats from
various development IOs. [R, abr.]
72.3916 COCODIA, Jude Rejecting African solutions to African
problems: the African Union and the Islamic Courts Union
in Somalia. African Security 14(2), 2021 : 110-131.
The subservience of the AU to its influential partners compels it to protect
their interests, even when these interests are detrimental to AU (peace)
objectives. This is the case in Somalia where Ethiopia and the United
States have waged a proxy war through the AU. Considering the current
conflict stalemate, this paper questions if the AU ignored viable indigenous
options for peace in Somalia. Using process tracing as the method of anal-
ysis, this paper argues that ignored local administrative processes that
have stabilized the north, and once used by the ICU in south-central So-
malia, are the best options for stability. [R]
72.3917 De FEO, Alfredo ; JACOBS, Francis The European expe-
rience of parliamentary administrations in comparative
perspective. Journal of Legislative Studies 27(4), 2021 : 554-
576.
This paper examines the various factors that make the European Parlia-
ment Administration so distinctive and also how it has responded to new
challenges. The first part of this paper looks briefly at the EP's evolution. It
then goes on to examine the main ways in which the European Parliament
differs from national parliaments and the implications of these differences
for the work of the EP Secretariat, some of them obvious and familiar and
others less so. The second part of the paper looks, instead, at some of the
specific features of the EP administration assessing how the Institution has
responded to new challenges, including how the EP administration has
attempted to respond to the Covid pandemic. There are then some con-
clusions, with some indications of areas requiring further research. [R]
[See Abstr. 72.]
72.3918 DELLMUTH, Lisa, et al. The elite-citizen gap in interna-
tional organization legitimacy. American Political Science
Review 116(1), Feb. 2022 : 283-300.
Scholars and policy-makers debate whether elites and citizens hold differ-
ent views of the legitimacy of intern ational organizations (IOs). Until now,
sparse data has limited our ability to establish such gaps and to formulate
theories for explaining them. This article offers the first systematic compar-
ative analysis of elite and citizen perceptions of the legitimacy of IOs. It
examines legitimacy beliefs toward six key IOs, drawing on uniquely coor-
dinated survey evidence from Brazil, Germany, the Philippines, R ussia,
and the US. We find a notable elitecitizen gap for all six IOs, four of the
five countries, and all of six different elite types. Developing an individual-
level approach to legitimacy beliefs, we argue that this gap is driven by
systematic differences between elites and citizens in characteristics that
matter for attitudes toward IOs. [R, abr.]
72.3919 ECKHARD, Steffen ; STEINEBACH, Yves Staff recruit-
ment and geographical representation in international or-
ganizations. International Review of Administrative Sciences
87(4), Dec.2021 : 701-717.
What explains geographical representation in the professional staff of in-
tergovernmental organizations (IOs)? We address this question from an
International relations
418
organizational perspective by considering IO recruitment processes. In the
UN system, recruitment processes are designed to ensure bureaucratic
merit, with experience and education being the relevant merit criteria. We
develop and test a supply-side theory, postulating that differences in coun-
tries’ supply of well-educated and highly experienced candidates can ex-
plain geographical representation. Drawing on staff data from 34 IOs and
supply data from 174 member states, and controlling for endogeneity and
alternative explanations, we find no such relationship for education. How-
ever, countries with a high supply of candidates with relevant working and
regional experiences have significantly higher representation values. [R,
abr.] [First of a series of articles on “International bureaucracy and the
United Nations system”. See also Abstr. 72.3920, 3922]
72.3920 EGE, Jörn ; BAUER, Michael W. ; WAGNER, Nora How do
international bureaucrats affect policy outputs? Studying
administrative influence strategies in international organ-
izations. International Review of Administrative Sciences
87(4), Dec.2021 : 737-754.
The article investigates how international public administrations, as corpo-
rate actors, influence policymaking within international organizations.
Starting from a conception of international organizations as political-ad-
ministrative systems, we theorize the strategies international bureaucrats
may use to affect international organizations’ policies and the conditions
under which these strategies vary. Building on a most-likely case design,
we use process tracing to study two cases of bureaucratic influence: the
influence of the secretariat of the World Health Organization on the “Global
action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases”;
and the influence of the International Labour Office on the “Resolution con-
cerning decent work in global supply chains”. We use interview material
gathered from international public administration staff and stakeholders to
illustrate varying influence strategies and the conditions under which these
strategies are used. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 72.3919]
72.3921 FOVERSKOV, Lea Acre The European Commission’s
ideas on integrating underrepresented groups into the la-
bour market. European Politics and Society 22(5), 2021 : 604-
634.
The paper explores the European Commission’s ideas on social policy. It
contributes to the debate on asymmetric economic and social policies in
the EU from an ideational perspective. Analyzing Commission reports on
labor markets, employment, and social affairs over a fifteen-year period
(2004-2018), I seek to understand what ideas on employment of un-
derrepresented labor market groups are prominent in the reports and
whether there is variation over time. To do so, I draw on the theoretical
literature on ideas. The paper concludes that the Commission’s approach
to underrepresented groups in the labor market has been and remains
justified by an economic growth-discourse, leading to frames and policy
ideas dominated by supply-side thinking. Thus, there has been a lack of
new policy solutions to underrepresented labor market groups over the
past fifteen years. [R, abr.]
72.3922 GROHS, Stephan ; RASCH, Daniel Administrative con-
vergence in the United Nations system? Patterns of ad-
ministrative reform in four United Nations organizations
over time. International Review of Administrative Sciences
87(4), Dec.2021 : 755-774.
This article asks how and why United Nations organizations reform their
administrative structure and processes over time. It explores whether we
can observe a convergence towards a coherent administrative model in
the United Nations system. Like in most nation states, reform discussions
according to models like New Public Management or post-New Public
Management have permeated international public administrations.
Against this background, the question of administrative convergence dis-
cussed for national administrative systems also arises for United Nations
international public administrations. On the one hand, similar challenges,
common reform ‘fashions’ and an increasing exchange within the United
Nations system make convergence likely. Yet, on the other hand, distinct
tasks, administrative styles and path dependencies might support diver-
gent reform trajectories. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 72.3919]
72.3923 GUEVARA, Maria S. A humanitarian perspective: keep-
ing people and their health, not national security, at the
centre. Australian Journal of International Affairs 76(1), 2022 :
17-21.
As part of the ‘UN Security Council and Health Emergencies’ collection,
this article provides the humanitarian perspective in the collection. Over
the last two decades, the UN Security Council has c ome to play an in-
creasingly prominent role in global responses to health emergenciesin-
cluding in COVID-19. In this article, scholars from International Relations,
Public Health, International Law and humanitarian aid organisations reflect
on this developing role, and the consequences (both positive and nega-
tive) for global health security efforts. From the humanitarian perspective,
the nexus of health and security has become a war on words and a double-
edged sword. The article highlights the difference between the ‘securitisa-
tion’ of health and securing health, where the latter is what is truly needed
in ensuring health for all. It does so by bringing out examples o f real field
impact and challenges humanitarian actors face when narratives are ma-
nipulated as such and what role the UNSC can and should play in allaying
negative repercussions. [R] [See Abstr. 72.3943]
72.3924 HARMAN, Sophie ; WENHAM, Clare The UN Security
Council and gender in health emergencies: what comes
next? Australian Journal of International Affairs 76(1), 2022 :
22-26.
Operative paragraph 7 of UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 2532
(2020) acknowledges ‘the critical role that women are playing in the
COVID-19 response efforts’, the ‘disproportionate negative impact the
pandemic is having on women and girls’, and ‘calls for concrete actions to
minimise this impact and ensure the full, equal and meaningful participa-
tion of women and youth in the development and implementation of an
adequate and sustainable response to the pandemic’. This Resolution is
clear in its language: states must recognise and respond to the gendered
effects of the pandemic. The adoption of Resolution 2532 and subse-
quently 2565 (2021) is an important opportunity to further integrate health
emergencies and UNSC’s Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda.
[R, abr.] [See Abstr. 72.3943]
72.3925 HEINEMANN, Friedrich The political economy of Euro
area sovereign debt restructuring Constitutional Political
Economy 32(4), 2021 : 502-522.
The establishment of a sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM)
is one of the important issues in the academic debate on a viable consti-
tution for the EMU. Yet the topic see ms to be taboo in official reform con-
tributions to the debate. Against this backdrop, the article identifies the
SDRM interests of key players, including the European Commission, the
European Parliament, the European Central Bank and national govern-
ments. The empirical section takes advantage of the recently established
EMU Positions Database. The findings confirm political economy expecta-
tions: Low-debt countries support an EMU constitution that includes an in-
solvency procedure whereas a coalition of high-debt countries and Euro-
pean institutions oppose it. [R, abr.]
72.3926 HEINZEL, Mirko Mediating power? Delegation, pooling
and leadership selection at international organisations.
British Journal of Politics and International Relations 24(1),
Feb. 2022 : 153-170.
The selection of the executive heads of international organisations repre-
sents a key decision in the politics of international organisations. However,
we know little about what dynamics influence this selection. The article
focuses on the nationality of selected executive heads. It argues that insti-
tutional design impacts the factors that influence leadership selection by
shaping the costs and benefits of attaining the position for member states’
nationals. The argument is tested with novel data on the nationality of in-
dividuals in charge of 69 international organisation bureaucracies between
1970 and 2017. Two findings stand out: first, powerful countries are more
able to secure positions in international organisations in which executive
heads are voted in by majority voting. Second, less consistent evidence
implies that powerful countries secure more positions when bureaucracies
are authoritative. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 72.3084]
72.3927 JOHNSON, Oliver ; WALSH, Sinead ; OLONISAKIN, Funmi
The role of the UN Security Council in health emergencies:
lessons from the Ebola response in Sierra Leone. Austral-
ian Journal of International Affairs 76(1), 2022 : 11-16.
The UN Security Council has increasingly involved itself in health emer-
gencies over the last two decades, but the advantages and potential risk
of its role have not been well explored. The experience Security Council
intervention in the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone can be instructive, in
particular because it contributed to the establishment of a first-ever UN
emergency health mission. While this mission was not considered effec-
tive, Security Council involvement may have helped to mobilise resources,
highlight the need for a cross-sectoral response, and maintain international
flights. More broadly, however, questions remain about whether the secu-
ritisation of health risks diverting funding and policy focus towards the pri-
orities of wealthy countries and away from basic health needs. [R] [See
Abstr. 72.3943]
72.3928 KAGIAROS, Dimitrios Reassessing the framework for the
protection of civil servant whistleblowers in the European
Court of Human Rights. Netherlands Quarterly of Human
Rights 39(3), Sept. 2021 : 220-240.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR or Court) has included civil
servant whistleblowers in the protective ambit of Article 10 of the European

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT