I Political Science : Method and Theory Science Politique : Méthodes Et Théories

Date01 December 2007
Publication Date01 December 2007
DOI10.1177/00208345070570060101
SubjectArticles
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I
POLITICAL SCIENCE : METHOD AND THEORY
SCIENCE POLITIQUE : MÉTHODES ET THÉORIES







57.6880
ABRAHAMSEN, Rita ; WILLIAMS, Michael C. — Securing
The article also argues that although women and girls are the predomi-
the city: private security companies and non-state
nant victims of sexual violence and men and boys the predominant
authority in global governance. International Relations
agents, we must also be able to account for the presence of male victims
21(2), June 2007 : 237-253.
and female agents. This, however, engenders a problem; much of the
The past decade has witnessed a remarkable expansion and globaliza-
women's human rights discourse and existing international mechanisms
for addressing wartime sexual violence tend to reify the male-
tion of the private security sector. These developments mark the emer-
perpetrator/female-victim paradigm. This is a problem which feminist
gence of public-private, global-local security networks that play increas-
human rights theorists and activists need to address. [R] [See Abstr.
ingly important roles in global governance. Rather than representing a
simple retreat of the state, security privatization is a part of broad proc-
57.7131]
esses in which the role of the state — and the nature and locus of
authority — is being transformed and rearticulated. Often presented as
57.6884
ALLEN, Susan Hannah — Time bombs: estimating the
apolitical, the effect of market forces and moves towards greater effi-
duration of coercive bombing campaigns. Journal of Con-
ciency in service delivery, the authority conferred on private actors can
flict Resolution 51(1), Feb. 2004 : 121-133.
alter the political landscape and in the case of private security has clear
implications for who is secured and how. The operation and impact of
Advancements in technology coupled with the perception of diminished
[these] networks is explored in the context of security-provision in Cape
public tolerance for casualties have increased the prominence and
Town, South Africa. [R, abr.] [See Abstr. 57.8008]
popularity of aerial bombing as a coercive tool, particularly for the US.
Despite interest from policy-makers and support from the public, there
has been little scholarly assessment of these coercive episodes. How
57.6881
ADLOFF, Frank — Beyond interests and norms: toward a
successful are air campaigns, and what are the prospects for the future?
theory of gift-giving and reciprocity in modern societies.
I focus on the factors that cause bombing campaigns to end. To explore
Constel ations 13(3), Sept. 2006 : 407-427.
what leads to campaign termination, I highlight the theoretical signifi-
The culture of gift-giving eludes narrow conceptions of rationality. This
cance of the political characteristics of both the attacker and the adver-
culture can help regenerate democratic societies facing declining political
sary. Using competing risks-duration analysis to examine both failed and
participation and an economization of politics. Communitarians, republi-
successful bombing campaigns from 1917 through 1999, I find that a
cans, and utilitarians all assume a fundamental distinction between
democratic government on either side of the coercive equation increases
actions based on calculation or prudence on the one hand and actions
the likelihood of campaigns ending. [R]
based on values and norms on the other. The author turns to anthropol-
ogy in search of an alternative. Relying on classic works by M. Mauss
57.6885
ANDJIGA, Nicolas G. ; BADIROU, Daoud ; MBIH, Boniface
and Cl. Lévi-Strauss as wel as recent studies by A Caille and J. God-
On the evaluation of power in parliaments and gov-
bout, he argues that gift-giving escapes oppositions between freedom
ernment formation. Constitutional Political Economy 18(2),
and obligation, altruism and rule-fol owing, individualism and holism. The
June 2007 : 69-82.
“paradigm of gift” thus reveals a realm of social action that, like democ-
racy itself, rests on relations of reciprocity and practices of cultural and
We explain how the power of coalitions can be computed after elections.
social negotiation. [R]
We add to the existing literature by using this analysis to predict what
government may emerge from these elections. [R, abr.]
57.6882
Al-RFOUH, Faisal O. — Mass communication and national
security. Democracy and Security 1(1), 2005 : 41-62.
57.6886
ANTOLIŠ, Krunoslav — Prerequisites for systematic
fighting terrorism. Croatian International Relations Review
Mass communication and the notion of national security have undergone
40-41, July-Dec. 2005 : 121-124.
substantial changes in the post-Cold War era characterized by globaliza-
tion. New technological innovations have spawned a paradigm shift in
In the modern world, global terrorism is deemed a true menace to all
the mass media which has been [labeled] as "communications global-
countries of the world, especially to member states of the anti-terrorist
ism". National security has become more vulnerable to the machinations
(AT) coalition. Our approach must be based primarily on the principle of
of hostile states and non-state actors through the new avenues of the
legal punishment, and by no means on the principle of revenge. Terror-
media like internet. Though nothing substantive has come to notice that
ism must not become a legal means of combating evolutionary changes
can undermine the national security interests of a nation, vulnerabilities
in society. Furthermore, permanent protection of basic human rights of
are there. Currently both the media and the security establishments
the citizens of Croatia within the context of combating terrorism is of the
responsible for national security are acclimatizing to the changing nu-
utmost importance. [R, abr.]
ances and it is their cooperative strategy and mutual trust that can serve
the interests of national security. [R]
57.6887
AOKI, Masahiko — Endogenizing institutions and institu-
tional changes. Journal of Institutional Economics 3(1), Apr.
57.6883
ALISON, Miranda — Wartime sexual violence: women’s
2007 : 1-31.
human rights and questions of masculinity. Review of In-
ternational Studies 33(1), Jan. 2007 : 75-90.
This paper proposes an analytical-cum-conceptual framework for under-
standing the nature of institutions as wel as their changes. It proposes a
This article examines wartime sexual violence, one of the most recurring
new definition of institution based on the notion of common knowledge
wartime human rights abuses. Our theorizations need further develop-
regarding self-sustaining features of social interactions with a hope to
ment, particularly in regard to the way that masculinities and the intersec-
integrate various disciplinary approaches to institutions and their
tions with constructions of ethnicity feature in wartime sexual violence.
changes. It specifies some generic mechanisms of institutional coher-

709

Political science : method and theory

ence and change — overlapping social embeddedness, Schumpeterian
57.6892
BANNINK, Duco ; HOOGENBOOM, Marcel — Hidden
innovation in bundling games, and dynamic institutional complementari-
change: disaggregation of welfare state regimes for
ties — useful for understanding the dynamic interactions of economic,
greater insight into welfare state change. Journal of Euro-
political, social, organizational, and cognitive factors. [R]
pean Social Policy 17(1), Feb. 2007 : 19-32.
This article proposes a method for the disaggregation of welfare state
57.6888
ARQUEMBOURG, Jocelyne — De l'événement interna-
regimes that enhances our insight into innovative welfare-state change.
tional à l'événement global : émergence et manifesta-
Welfare states are composed of different approaches to various social
tions d'une sensibilité mondiale (From international
risks, and the approach to each social risk consists of various types of
events to global events: the outward signs of a world-
arrangements. We argue that a singular approach to a social risk creates
wide sensitivity). Hermès 46, 2006 : 13-21. [Résumés en
a social residue that may evoke social pressure which can in turn be
français]
diminished by hybridizing the arrangement: changing al ocation rules to
For a long time the social sciences have been suspicious of the concept
include new social groups or to cover previously uncovered needs. In
of event, ignoring its capacity to break order. Media events for instance
itself, however, a hybrid arrangement is unstable. This is why hybridiza-
are considered as the products of media constructions misrepresenting
tion may be fol owed by either a return to a singular risk approach so that
reality; events should be distinguished from facts because an event
social pressure re-emerges, or by the establishment of a new, additional
causes a rupture which is not created only by the media. Media link
arrangement so that a hybrid risk approach emerges. [R, abr.]
together the activities of social actors on the one hand and the reactions
of a public on the other hand. The question is why international events
affect a worldwide public. It seems that in the media coverage of such
57.6893
BARZELAY, Michael ; GALLEGO, Raquel — From "new
events universal norms and values as wel as specific located contexts
institutionalism" to "institutional processualism": ad-
vancing knowledge about public...

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