Law of Property Act 1925

Publication Date:January 01, 1925


Law of Property Act, 1925

(15 & 16 Geo. 5.) CHAPTER 20.

An Act to consolidate the enactments relating to Conveyancing and the Law of Property in England and Wales.

[9th April 1925]

B e it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same as follows:—

I General Principles as to Legal Estates, Equitable Interests and Powers.

Part I.

General Principles as to Legal Estates, EquitableInterests and Powers.

S-1 Legal estates and equitable interests.

1 Legal estates and equitable interests.

(1) The only estates in land which are capable of subsisting or of being conveyed or created at law are—

( a ) An estate in fee simple absolute in possession

( b ) A term of years absolute

(2) The only interests or charges in or over land which are capable of subsisting or of being conveyed or created at law are—

( a ) An casement, right, or privilege in or over land for an interest equivalent to an estate in fee simple absolute in possession or a term of years absolute

( b ) A rentcharge in possession issuing out of or charged on land being either perpetual or for a term of years absolute;

( c ) A charge by way of legal mortgage;

( d ) Land tax, tithe rentcharge, and any other similar charge on land which is not created by an instrument;

( e ) Rights of entry exercisable over or in respect of a legal term of years absolute, or annexed, for any purpose, to a legal rentcharge.

(3) All other estates, interests, and charges in or over land take effect as equitable interests.

(4) The estates, interests, and charges which under this section are authorised to subsist or to be conveyed or created at law are (when subsisting or conveyed or created at law) in this Act referred to as ‘legal estates,’ and have the same incidents as legal estates subsisting at the commencement of this Act; and the owner of a legal estate is referred to as ‘an estate owner’ and his legal estate is referred to as his estate.

(5) A legal estate may subsist concurrently with or subject to any other legal estate in the same land in like manner as it could have done before the commencement of this Act.

(6) A legal estate is not capable of subsisting or of being created in an undivided share in land or of being held by an infant.

(7) Every power of appointment over, or power to convey or charge land or any interest therein, whether created by a statute or other instrument or implied by law, and whether created before or after the commencement of this Act (not being a power vested in a legal mortgagee or an estate owner in right of his estate and exercisable by him or by another person in his name and on his behalf), operates only in equity.

(8) Estates, interests, and charges in or over land which are not legal estates are in this Act referred to as ‘equitable interests,’ and powers which by this Act are to operate in equity only are in this Act referred to as ‘equitable powers.’

(9) The provisions in any statute or other instrument requiring land to be conveyed to uses shall take effect as directions that the land shall (subject to creating or reserving thereout any legal estate authorised by this Act which may be required) be conveyed to a person of full age upon the requisite trusts.

(10) The repeal of the Statute of Uses (as amended) does not affect the operation thereof in regard to dealings taking effect before the commencement of this Act.

S-2 Conveyances overreaching certain equitable interests and powers.

2 Conveyances overreaching certain equitable interests and powers.

(1) A conveyance to a purchaser of a legal estate in land shall overreach any equitable interest or power affecting that estate, whether or not he has notice thereof, if—

(i) the conveyance is made under the powers conferred by the Settled Land Act, 1925 , or any additional powers conferred by a settlement, and the equitable interest or power is capable of being overreached thereby, and the statutory requirements respecting the payment of capital money arising under the settlement are complied with;

(ii) the conveyance is made by trustees for sale and the equitable interest or power is at the date of the conveyance capable of being overreached by such trustees under the provisions of subsection (2) of this section or independently of that subsection, and the statutory requirements respecting the payment of capital money arising under a disposition upon trust for sale are complied with;

(iii) the conveyance is made by a mortgagee or personal representative in the exercise of his paramount powers, and the equitable interest or power is capable of being overreached by such conveyance, and any capital money arising from the transaction is paid to the mortgagee or personal representative;

(iv) the conveyance is made under an order of the court and the equitable interest or power is bound by such order, and any capital money arising from the transaction is paid into, or in accordance with the order of, the court.

(2) Where the legal estate affected is not, when the equitable interest or power is created, subject to a trust for sale or a settlement, then, if the estate owner, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, disposes of his estate to trustees upon trust for sale, and at the date of a conveyance made, after such commencement, under the disposition upon trust for sale the trustees (whether original or substituted) are either—

( a ) two or more individuals approved or appointed by the court or the successors in office of the individuals so approved or appointed; or

( b ) a trust corporation,

such equitable interest or power shall, notwithstanding any stipulation to the contrary, be overreached by the conveyance, and shall, according to its priority, take effect as if created or arising by means of a primary trust affecting the proceeds of sale and the income of the land until sale.

(3) The following equitable interests and powers are excepted from the operation of subsection (2) of this section, namely—

(i) Any equitable interest protected by a deposit of documents relating to the legal estate affected;

(ii) The benefit of any covenant or agreement restrictive of the user of land;

(iii) Any casement, liberty, or privilege over or affecting land and being merely an equitable interest (in this Act referred to as an ‘equitable casement’);

(iv) The benefit of any contract (in this Act referred to as an ‘estate contract’) to convey or create a legal estate, including a contract conferring either expressly or by statutory implication a valid option to purchase, a right of preemption, or any other like right;

(v) Any equitable interest protected by registration under the Land Charges Act, 1925, other than—

a ) an annuity within the meaning of Part II. of that Act;
b ) a limited owner's charge or a general equitable charge within the meaning of that Act.

(4) Subject to the protection afforded by this section to the purchaser of a legal estate, nothing contained in this section shall deprive a person entitled to an equitable charge of any of his rights or remedies for enforcing the same.

(5) So far as regards the following interests, created before the commencement of this Act (which accordingly are not within the provisions of the Land Charges Act, 1925 ), namely—

( a ) the benefit of any covenant or agreement restrictive of the user of the land;

( b ) any equitable easement;

( c ) the interest under a puisne mortgage within the meaning of the Land Charges Act, 1925, unless and until acquired under a transfer made after the commencement of this Act;

( d ) the benefit of an estate contract, unless and until the same is acquired under a conveyance made after the commencement of this Act;

a purchaser of a legal estate shall only take subject thereto if he has notice thereof, and the same are not overreached under the provisions contained or in the manner referred to in this section.

S-3 Manner of giving effect to equitable interests and powers.

3 Manner of giving effect to equitable interests and powers.

(1) All equitable interests and powers in or over land shall be enforceable against the estate owner of the legal estate affected in manner following (that is to say):—

( a ) Where the legal estate affected is settled land the tenant for life or statutory owner shall be bound to give effect to the equitable interests and powers in manner provided by the Settled Land Act, 1925;

( b ) Where the legal estate affected is vested in trustees for sale—

(i) The trustees shall stand possessed of the net proceeds of sale after payment of costs and of the net rents and profits of the land until sale after payment of rates, taxes, costs of insurance, repairs, and other outgoings upon such trusts and subject to such powers and provisions as may be requisite for giving effect to the equitable interests and powers affecting the same respectively, of which they have notice, and whether created before or after the disposition upon trust for sale, according to their respective...

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