The role of local communities in peacebuilding in post-ethnic conflict in a multi-cultural society

AuthorHartoyo Hartoyo,Haryanto Sindung,Fahmi Teuku,Sunarto Sunarto
The role of local communities in
peacebuilding in post-ethnic conict
in a multi-cultural society
Hartoyo Hartoyo, Haryanto Sindung, Fahmi Teuku and Sunarto Sunarto
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of socio-demographic factors on ethnic
tolerance (ET) and religious tolerance (RT) as well as the participation of the local community in
peacebuildingin post-ethnic violent conflictsin a multi-cultural society.
Design/methodology/approach This research was conductedin the rural areas of Indonesia, on the
basis of an empirical study that was performed in Lampung, a province at the southerntip of Sumatra.
Data were collected through a survey of 500 respondents from five districts susceptible to ethnic
conflicts. From each district, two villages that experiencedethnic conflicts were chosen and from each
village, 50 respondents wererandomly selected. To strengthen the explanation of quantitative data, in-
depth interviewswere also conducted with another 50 residents,five informants from each of ten villages.
Informantscomprised community leaders or traditionalleaders, local police officers,local military officers
and districtgovernment officials.
Findings First, the degree of tolerance is not specifically concentrated in the socio-demographic
characteristics. Second, ET affects RT. Third, local community participation in peacebuilding in post-
ethnic violentconflicts is not influenced by the socio-demographiccharacteristics but is influenced by ET
and RT. The socio-culturalapproach is the main strategy for peacebuildingin post-ethnic (and religious)
conflicts in multi-cultural societies. The weakness of inter-ethnic relations soon improves in the post-
peace period through thereconstruction of social and cultural factors to strengthensocial cohesion and
social capitalat the local community level by involvingvarious stakeholders
Originality/value This paper is a valuablesource of information regarding current researchon the role
of local communities in strengthening and building peacein post-ethnic violent conflicts in multi-cultural
Keywords Tolerance, Community, Participation, Peacebuilding,Ethnic conflict, Multi-cultural society
Paper type Research paper
A dramatic increase was observed in the cases of ethnic conflicts in the multi-cultural
society of Indonesia, especially after the end of the New Order era in 1998 (Aspinall, 2011;
Al-Qurtuby,2012/2013). In Lampung, from 2010 to 2016, several types of conflicts took
place, such as spontaneous crimes, acts of vigilantism and other crimes that often
developed into ethnic conflicts (Hartoyo, 2016). In addition, a prominent culture of
vigilantism prevailed. People hold low trust in the legal systems of local communities, which
makes them seek justice in their own way. Many crimes committed by a few individuals
quickly evolved into acts of collective violence, such as vigilantism, resulting in escalation,
retaliation and a cycle of ethnic conflicts (Barron and Madden, 2004). However, Indonesia
has a diversity of wisdoms as a social capital that contributes positively to both violence
prevention and conflict resolution. These include the “Muakhi” tradition in Lampung
Hartoyo Hartoyo, Haryanto
Sindung and Fahmi Teuku
are all based at the
Department of Sociology,
Faculty of Social and
Political Science,
Universitas Lampung,
Bandar Lampung,
Sunarto Sunarto is based at
the Department of Criminal
Law, Faculty of Law,
Universitas Lampung,
Bandar Lampung,
Received 26 June 2019
Revised 30 September 2019
6 December 2019
Accepted 9 December 2019
©Hartoyo Hartoyo, Haryanto
Sindung, Fahmi Teuku and
Sunarto Sunarto.Published by
Emerald Publishing Limited.
This article is published under
the Creative Commons
Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence.
Anyone mayreproduce,
distribute, translate and create
derivative works of this article
(for both commercial andnon-
commercial purposes), subject
to full attribution to the original
publication and authors. The
fullterms of this licence may be
seen at http://creativecom-
Disclosure statement.No
potential conflict of interest was
reported by the author.
DOI 10.1108/JACPR-06-2019-0419 VOL. 12 NO. 1 2020, pp. 33-44, ©Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 1759-6599 jJOURNAL OF AGGRESSION, CONFLICT AND PEACE RESEARCH jPAGE 33

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