Journal of Criminology (formerly Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology)

Sage Publications, Inc.
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Latest documents

  • School truancy and welfare receipt dynamics in early adulthood: A longitudinal study

    School truancy is associated with many negative life outcomes, including violent, property, and drug offending, lower levels of education, and subsequently lower status and lower-paying jobs. These negative life outcomes are also related to future reliance on government welfare payments. This research sought to identify how high school truancy affects young people's welfare receipt dynamics in emerging adulthood. It uses longitudinal data from a nationally representative household panel survey (the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey) to estimate the effect of truancy on young people's likelihood of receiving government-paid cash transfers in emerging adulthood. We find that young people who are truant are over four times more likely to receive cash transfers than young people who are not truant. Findings also show that the extent of truancy does not impact the likelihood of welfare receipt, even when differentiating between infrequent and problem truants. We conclude with some comments on truancy's role in welfare dynamics.

  • The benefits of a cyber-resilience posture on negative public reaction following data theft

    Research shows that customers are insufficiently motivated to protect themselves from crimes that may derive from data theft within an organisation. Instead, the burden of security is placed upon the businesses that host their personal information. Companies that fail to sufficiently secure their customers’ information thus risk experiencing potentially ruinous reputational harm. There is a relative dearth of research examining why some businesses that have been breached stay resilient in the face of negative public reaction while others do not. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study tackles the concept of cyber-resilience, defined as the ability to limit, endure, and eventually bounce back from the impact of a cyber incident. A vignette-based experimental study was conducted and featured: (1) a breached business described as having a strong cyber-resilience posture; (2) a breached business described as having a weak cyber-resilience posture. Overall, a convenience sample of 605 students in Canada were randomly assigned to one of the two main experimental conditions. The results show that a strong cyber-resilience posture reduces negative customer attitudes and promotes positive customer behavioral intentions, in comparison to a weak cyber-resilience posture. Similarly, the more negative attitudes a customer holds toward a breached business, the less likely they are to behave favorably toward it. As a result of this study, cyber-resilience, which has hitherto primarily received conceptual attention, gains explanatory power. Furthermore, this research project contributes more generally to business victimology, which is an underdeveloped field of criminology.

  • Identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders and victims in judicial sentencing remarks

    Judicial Sentencing Remarks (JSRs) have been utilised by several researchers, as a publicly available data source, to explore topics such as alcohol and other drug involvement in intimate partner homicide; the use of therapeutic jurisprudence; narratives of mitigation for Aboriginal offenders; and the identification and impact of trauma in the sentencing of homicide offenders (to name a few). There is inconsistency in the existing literature regarding the methodology for identifying offenders as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. Appropriate and correct identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the criminal justice system is important because of the distinct differences in how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience the criminal justice system, including sentencing and punishment. We retrospectively developed a manual algorithm to identify offenders and victims as “Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander”, “non-Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander” or “Unknown”. This paper provides an overview of the development and the application of the algorithm and discusses the importance of transparency in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification processes when using JSRs as a data source.

  • Book Review: Convict criminology for the future by Ross, Jeffrey Ian & Vianello, Francesca (Eds.)Young men’s experiences of long-term imprisonment: Living life by Tynan, Rachel Rose
  • A follow-up evaluation of a coordinated police-social services response to recidivist family violence

    Coordinated multi-agency approaches are a key strategy for responding to recidivist family violence. This paper presents a follow-up quantitative evaluation of Alexis: a coordinated police-social services approach to recidivist and high-risk family violence piloted in Victoria, Australia. State-wide police data was collected for 75 perpetrators 20 to 36 months since case closure following Alexis intervention. Results indicated that 38 perpetrators (51%) had no further recorded incidents of family violence. The remaining non-mutually exclusive categories indicated that 17 (22%) had perpetrated family violence against the original Alexis victim in another location (outside the pilot catchment zones); 28 (37%) had perpetrated family violence against a different victim; and 8 of the prior two groups (11%) had perpetrated violence against both Alexis and non-Alexis victims. Those classified as low recidivists before intervention were less likely to have a further recorded incident of family violence during the follow-up period compared to high recidivists. Implications for police and policy-makers are discussed with reference to intimate partner violence and parent abuse by adult children.

  • Insider threats among Dutch SMEs: Nature and extent of incidents, and cyber security measures

    Insider threats represent a latent risk to all organisations, whether they are large companies or Small or Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Insiders, the individuals with privileged access to the assets of organisations, can compromise their proper functioning and cause serious consequences that can be direct—such as financial—or indirect—such as reputational. Insider incidents can have a negative impact on SMEs, as their resources are often limited, making it paramount to implement adequate cyber security measures. Despite its indisputable relevance, the empirical study of insider incidents from a criminological point of view has received little attention. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that aims to understand the nature and extent of three types of insider incidents—malicious, negligent, and well-meaning—and how they are related to the adoption of cyber security measures. To that end, we administered a questionnaire among a panel of 496 Dutch SME entrepreneurs and managers and analysed the results quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that although the prevalence of insider incidents is relatively low among Dutch SMEs, few organisations report a disproportionate number of incidents that often entail serious consequences. A regression model shows that there are cyber security measures related to both higher and lower incident likelihood. The implications of these findings for the cyber security policies of SMEs are discussed.

  • Debut crimes and chronic offenders in Queensland

    We investigate whether the type of crime committed early in an individual's career has a bearing on patterns of subsequent offending (the so-called debut hypothesis) in an Australian setting. Police-recorded crime data from 2008 to 2020 were used and partitioned into cohorts based on the year of the first offence. We computed, for each cohort, the rate at which individuals progressed to established criminal careers conditioned by their first recorded offence. Individuals who commit burglary, vehicle theft, or robbery as their first recorded offence were observed to become chronic offenders at higher rates than those who commit other types of first offences. We also demonstrated that this relationship exists for other dimensions of the criminal career and is time stable. The policy implications of our findings suggest that a combination of opportunity reduction and diversionary policies has the potential to substantially reduce the prospects of chronic criminal careers and their societal impact.

  • Book Review: Beyond cages: animal law and criminal punishment by Marceau Justin
  • Domestic and family violence leave across Australian workplaces: Examining victim-survivor experiences of workplace supports and the importance of cultural change

    There is increasing recognition across Australian industries, workplace policy makers and researchers that domestic and family violence (DFV) is a workplace issue. DFV not only impacts victim-survivors’ engagement in the workforce but their work performance, job satisfaction, productivity and career progression. The economic costs of DFV to Australian workplaces are well documented; however, there is limited research capturing the workplaces’ experiences of DFV victim-survivors. Reflecting increasing acknowledgement of the need for workplaces to offer supports to employees who are experiencing DFV, in October 2022, the Commonwealth Government passed legislation that introduces a 10-day paid DFV leave provision into National Employment Standards. Recognising the critical opportunity that the new legislation presents for improving DFV workplace supports, this article offers victim-survivor led understandings of what is needed to ensure the new paid DFV leave provisions are introduced and embedded effectively across Australian workplaces. It centres the experiences of victim-survivors by drawing on the findings of a national survey and in-depth interviews conducted with over 300 Australian DFV victim-survivors. The findings are relevant to current policy and practice debates across Australia.

  • The influence of Indigenous status on the issue of police cautions

    Over the last 20 years, a body of research has emerged in the United States (US) revealing that the country’s sentencing courts to treat young male African American (and Hispanic) offenders more harshly than white offenders, even after adjusting for relevant legal and contextual factors. Similar research in Australia has generally found that the effect of Indigenous status on adult bail/sentencing outcomes is either non-significant, or significant, but very small. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of race, age, and gender on police decisions to prosecute rather than caution to a juvenile offender. We employ a multilevel model with random intercepts to explore the impact of race, age, and gender on police decisions to prosecute rather than caution to a juvenile offender. The first level controls for offender/offence factors a police officer may legally consider when deciding whether or not to caution a young offender. The second level controls for the police patrol to which the police officer is attached. After adjusting for the effects of legally relevant factors, we find Indigenous juvenile offenders (regardless of sex) are more likely to be prosecuted than cautioned, compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. There is also wide variation across local area commands in willingness to caution juvenile offenders. We conclude that further research is needed to obtain a better understanding of the factors responsible for racial disparity in the use of police cautions.

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