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  • Extending the knowledge on cause-related marketing (CrM) campaign with focus on skepticism

    Purpose: This study aims to gain insight on evaluation of cause-related marketing (CrM) campaigns by the millennial with focus on skepticism, brand identity and patronage intention. Design/methodology/approach: To attain the above objective a conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Findings: The finding suggests that sub-segments exist among millennial segments. They can be classified into hedonic, utilitarian, individualistic and collectivists. Compared to utilitarian and individualistic customers hedonic and collectivists were found to evaluate CrM campaign more favorably. Utilitarian and individualistic depict skepticism toward CrM campaign. Practical implications: The in-depth knowledge gained about millennials is expected to benefit academicians and marketers alike. Academicians will be enriched by the knowledge of the micro-segments that exists among the millennial and how that had differential impact on their skepticism while evaluating CrM campaign. The marketers involved in the designing and implementation of the CrM campaign will be benefited from the in-depth knowledge of segments with lower and higher levels of skepticism. Such knowledge gained will help them develop more effective CrM campaign. Originality/value: One of the contributions of the present study is that it extends the existing knowledge about millennials, particularly in the context of CrM campaign evaluation integrating it with other important variables such as skepticism, brand identity and patronage intention.

  • Between trust and control in R&D alliances

    Purpose: Trust and control through contracting have been juxtaposed in many studies addressing interorganizational collaboration and knowledge exchange. In this study, the authors move from the opposite ends of a continuum between trust as an attitude and control exercised through formal contracts toward the center of the continuum where trust and contracting start to show similar features. The authors ask how trust in its analytical form and control gained through establishing informal protection for knowledge assets affect the innovation and market performance of firms engaged in research and development (R&D) alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The authors examine the existing literature and conduct a quantitative empirical study to answer the research question. Findings: The authors find, first, that controlling an organization’s own knowledge assets in R&D alliances with informal means of protection can be more effective than a strategy of controlling the alliance through formal contracts. Second, the authors find that an analytical audit of partner trustworthiness, and especially partner capabilities and goodwill can be more effective than trust as an attitude. Research limitations/implications: The findings support softening the sharp distinction between trust and control and provide evidence on the relevance of highlighting the firm point of view in knowledge management in R&D alliance governance. Originality/value: The study adds to the existing understanding of trust and control in R&D alliance governance. Specifically, the authors turn the focus from interorganizational governance to intra-organizational knowledge management measures, and particularly toward how a focal actor can take an analytical approach to evaluate partner trustworthiness and use informal control in protecting its own knowledge assets. Consequently, this study also provides a plausible explanation for the contradictory findings in studies that examine the relationship between trust and control. The study indicates that depending on the specific nature of trust and control, they can be either a complement or a supplement factors: the extreme forms of trust and control are notably different from those forms that share similar features.

  • Enterprise social network (ESN) systems and knowledge sharing: what makes it work for users?

    Purpose: Enterprise Social Network (ESN) systems have emerged as the technology of choice to bolster and support organizational efforts for harnessing embedded knowledge. However, a lack of understanding about it limits the optimization of its potential. Hence, this paper aims to assess the role of hedonic motivation, network externalities (NE) and top management support in conjugation with the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology theory to understand ESN’s usage for knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 187 ESN users through a survey questionnaire and subsequently analyzed using variance-based structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method. Findings: ESNs are used both for utilitarian and hedonic purposes. Furthermore, the results also bring out the importance of externalities arising from an extensive network of users and complimentary services, as well as support regarding resources and recognition from the top management toward reinforcing the benefits of using ESNs. Research limitations/implications: This study advances earlier knowledge by assessing the actual usage of ESNs for knowledge sharing. It takes into consideration multiple input variables, namely, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, NE amongst others to best resonate with the key factors driving its adoption and usage by an individual. However, because of the cross-sectional research design, causality can only be inferred. Practical implications: The organizations are recommended to have in place the measures for attaining optimal usage of ESNs, and in turn, witness knowledge moves around in ways unfathomable. Steps should be taken to develop tools and ecosystems to provide users affordances for both increasing productivity, as well as opportunities for gaining pleasure. Originality/value: This study is one of its kind effort to synthesize the knowledge about the ESNs in an Indian context. It provides fascinating insights into the determinants of intention and usage of ESNs for knowledge sharing.

  • Do extrinsic motivation and organisational culture additively strengthen intrinsic motivation in online knowledge sharing?. An empirical study

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between intrinsic motivation and online knowledge sharing intentions (KSIs) and the moderating effect of extrinsic motivation and organisational culture on this relationship. The influence of online KSI on two dimensions of online knowledge sharing behaviour, knowledge donating and knowledge collecting, was also investigated. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the extensive literature review, a questionnaire was designed. In total, 290 questionnaires from employees in Vietnamese companies in the banking and insurance industry were collected and tested using structural equation modelling. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS and PLS 3 software to examine the research hypotheses. Findings: This study found that rewards and reciprocity undermined the influence of self-enjoyment on online KSI, while top management support and social interaction ties undermined the relationship between self-efficacy and online KSI. Top management support positively moderated the effect of self-enjoyment on online KSI. The results also suggested that online KSI was a good predictor of online knowledge donating and collecting. Originality/value: Little is empirically known about the moderating effect of extrinsic motivation and organizational culture on intrinsic motivation. The study brings new insights to further understand about online knowledge sharing in an organisation.

  • Self-evaluation of knowledge sharing through the lens of social comparison theory

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how different types of contribution awareness information influence knowledge sharing motivation and contribution persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The independent variable of this experimental study was contribution awareness information with four levels: self-contribution, absolute social-comparison, relative social-comparison and control. The dependent variables were self-rated knowledge sharing motivation measured on a six-point Likert scale and contribution persistence measured by number of contributions. A total of 182 knowledge workers voluntarily completed online participation. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four intervention groups. Findings: The study found that the self-contribution group outperformed the other groups in both knowledge sharing motivation and contribution persistence; this observation was significant compared with the absolute social-comparison and control groups. The impact of self-contribution frequency information was stronger for contribution persistence than for self-evaluated knowledge sharing motivation, highlighting the gap between perception and behavior. It is also noteworthy that comparative information negatively influenced knowledge sharing motivation and contribution persistence, implying that social comparison played a role in priming individuals to focus on dissimilarities between the comparison target and themselves. Originality/value: This study provides behavior-based evidence supporting social comparison theory and the selective accessibility model in the field of knowledge sharing outside of an organizational context. This study also offers the practical advice that participants’ knowledge sharing motivation and contribution persistence, especially newly joining members, can be increased by the inclusion of self-contribution information and conversely decreased by comparative information.

  • Do social networking applications support the antecedents of knowledge sharing practices?

    Purpose: Many organizations are struggling to achieve competitiveness due to lack of knowledge sharing (KS) practices. The sustainability of the service sector is linked to KS practices and creativity. Therefore, to survive in a dynamic business environment, universities have to formulate and implement such practices and innovative learning systems. This paper aims to highlight how social media networking apps can be used efficiently and effectively to support the antecedents of KS among the employees in public and private universities. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a positivistic approach and a quantitative research design. A survey was carried out with employees at public and private universities. The respondents were chosen based on simple random sampling with the purpose of increasing the validity and generalizability of the results in the context of university settings and for other sectors as well. Findings: Certain individual and organizational factors have been found, which have been supported by social networking tools. These factors can enhance KS practices, such as informal relationships and social networking, effective communication and collaboration, mutual trust and the intention to share knowledge, the KS culture and new ideas. The results of this study reveal that social networking applications such as WhatsApp, Viber, Skype, Facebook, Research-gate, YouTube and personal blogs are more productive in supporting the antecedents of KS stated above in university settings. Research limitations/implications: Social networking applications have received attention because executives and researchers are increasingly focusing on finding new ways to use social networking tools for business purposes. The effective and efficient use of social networking tools helps organizations to foster knowledge amongst employees to address various critical issues, such as knowledge hoarding, lower levels of skills and knowledge, lower levels of communication and employee involvement, a lack of the intention to share knowledge and resistance toward the adoption of new technology. Originality/value: There is rare literature available on how social networking tools can support the antecedents of KS in university settings. Most of such literature has investigated the link between social media and KS using a systematic literature and qualitative research approach. This research is based on empirical study and it is unique as it investigates the hitherto under-researched issue of the adoption of social networking applications to foster the antecedents of KS in university settings.

  • Optimization driven actor-critic neural network for sentiment analysis in social media

    Purpose: Sentiment analysis is the subfield of data mining, which is profusely used for studying the opinions of the users by analyzing their suggestions on the Web platform. It plays an important role in the daily decision-making process, and every decision has a great impact on daily life. Various techniques including machine learning algorithms have been proposed for sentiment analysis, but still, they are inefficient for extracting the sentiment features from the given text. Although the improvement in sentiment analysis approaches, there are several problems, which make the analysis inefficient and inaccurate. This paper aims to develop the sentiment analysis scheme on movie reviews by proposing a novel classifier. Design/methodology/approach: For the analysis, the movie reviews are collected and subjected to pre-processing. From the pre-processed review, a total of nine sentiment related features are extracted and provided to the proposed exponential-salp swarm algorithm based actor-critic neural network (ESSA-ACNN) classifier for the sentiment classification. The ESSA algorithm is developed by integrating the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and SSA for selecting the optimal weight of ACNN. Finally, the proposed classifier classifies the reviews into positive or negative class. Findings: The performance of the ESSA-ACNN classifier is analyzed by considering the reviews present in the movie review database. From, the simulation results, it is evident that the proposed ESSA-ACNN classifier has improved performance than the existing works by having the performance of 0.7417, 0.8807 and 0.8119, for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, respectively. Originality/value: The proposed classifier can be applicable for real-world problems, such as business, political activities and so on.

  • IT outsourcing, knowledge transfer and project transition phases

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to uncover perceptions of information technology outsourcing (ITO) project leaders and project teams regarding knowledge transfer between client and vendor partners during opening and closing transition phases of ITO projects. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative methods and exploratory case study design were used. Purposeful sampling was used to identify ITO knowledge assets including project team members and organizational documents and artifacts that may provide information regarding the knowledge transfer processes during the transition phases of the ITO project. Sample criteria were ITO project team members from one US-based client organization and the company’s international vendor partners. The study population included project managers, analyst, developers, subject matter experts (SMEs) and other ITO knowledge workers involved in the ITO project from one US-based organization. Interview and document analysis were done using of NVivo Pro 11® research software. Findings: Four themes emerged from participant responses relative to the opening and closing phases of ITO projects including KT approaches to plans and processes; KT dependencies relative to IT project team member’s reliance on project tools, processes and artifacts; determinants of KT success or failure relative to project team members’ perceptions; and role of documentation relative to communication and distribution of KT outcomes. Originality/value: This research may provide insights into additional aspects of knowledge transfer during ITO transition phases, which may be used by IT leaders and project teams to plan for successful knowledge transfer during the transition phases of ITO projects.

  • If numbers could “feel”: How well do executives trust their intuition?

    Purpose: In the business and data analytics community, intuition has not been discussed widely in terms of its application to executive decision-making. However, the purpose of this paper is to focus on new global research that combines intuition, trust and analytics in terms of how well C-level executives trust their intuition. Design/methodology/approach: Our Fulbright research, as described in this paper and performed by colleagues from the United States, Canada, Poland and Italy, examines executives’ as well as other less experienced employees’ preferences for different types of intuition versus data analysis. This study set out to better understand the degree to which executives prefer intuition versus analysis and the relationship between these approaches to decision-making. Our research combines elements of a review, a cross-cultural/cross-company survey study and a biometrics study in interoception. The research team has a multidisciplinary background in business, information technology, strategy, trust management, statistics and neuroscience. Findings: Based on our research, the main findings are as follows. The use of and preference for intuition types change as employees gain more experience. However, there may be intuition styles that are more static and trait-like, which are linked to roles, differentiating managers from leaders. Using “inferential intuition” and “seeing the big picture” go hand in hand. Listening to your body signals can promote improved intuition. Cross-cultural differences may impact executive decision-making. Executives often prefer to use their intuition over analysis/analytics. Research limitations/implications: This research could be expanded to have a larger sample size of C-level executives. We had 172 responses with 65% C-level executives and 12% directors. However, a recent survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit on intuition used by executives had a sample of 174 executives around the world, which is comparable with our sample size. Practical implications: From our research, executives should continue to apply their experiential learning through intuition to complement their use of data in making strategic decisions. We have often discounted the use of intuition in executive decision-making, but our research highlights the importance of making it a critical part of the executive decision-making process. Originality/value: Based on the results of our survey and biometrics research, executives apply their intuition to gain greater confidence in their decision-making. Listening to their body signals can also improve their intuitive executive awareness. This complements their use of data and analytics when making executive decisions.

  • The effect of knowledge management on perceived software process improvement. Mediating effects of critical success factors and moderating effect of the use of information technology

    Purpose: This study aims to present insights on the relationship between perceived software process improvement (PSPI) and information technology (IT)-enabled knowledge management (KM). Moreover, the study provides an understanding of the mediating effect of critical success factors (CSFs) for effective IT-enabled KM on the previously mentioned relationship. Design/methodology/approach: The respondents in the study involved employees in the software engineering (SE) organizations in national capital region in India. The structured equation modeling technique carried out through IBM.SPSS.Amos.v21-EQUiNOX was used to develop and evaluate the proposed framework. The proposed hypothesis testing has been carried out by path analysis using SPSS process macro. Findings: The findings of the empirical study reveal that a significant relationship exists between the variables under investigation. Moreover, it was observed that CSFs act as a mediator between PSPI and IT-enabled KM. The identified factors are associated with various aspects as managerial, infrastructure, financial, systems and processes for IT-enabled KM. IT acts as a moderator between KM and PSPI and facilitate the various phases of KM as knowledge creation, storage and retrieval, sharing and application of knowledge. Practical implications: The present study introduces a framework for identifying and applying the CSFs that influence the KM initiatives for PSPI in an SE organization. The practitioners can use the CSFs for assessing the performance (strengths and weaknesses) in process of software development and KM practices. Researchers can use the resultant framework proposed in the empirical study for PSPI, IT-enabled KM, and in academia, the framework supports to organize the study of IT-enabled KM for PSPI. Originality/value: The general comprehension of the relationship between IT-enabled KM and PSPI for Indian SE organizations is scarce in the literature. Following, the analysis expands the earlier research by exploring the mediating role of the CSFs and the moderating effect of IT for KM and PSPI relationship.

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