Amendment of Pleadings in UK Law

Leading Cases
  • Boake Allen Ltd and Others v HM Revenue and Customs
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 31 Janeiro 2006

    While it is good sense not to be pernickety about pleadings, the basic requirement that material facts should be pleaded is there for a good reason—so that the other side can respond to the pleaded case by way of admission or denial of facts, thereby defining the issues for decision for the benefit of the parties and the court. Proper pleading of the material facts is essential for the orderly progress of the case and for its sound determination.

  • Costellow v Somerset County Council
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 09 Novembro 1992

    As so often happens, this problem arises at the intersection of two principles, each in itself salutary. The first principle is that the rules of court and the associated rules of practice, devised in the public interest to promote the expeditious dispatch of litigation, must be observed. The prescribed time limits are not targets to be aimed at or expressions of pious hope but requirements to be met.

    The second principle is that a plaintiff should not in the ordinary way be denied an adjudication of his claim on its merits because of procedural default, unless the default causes prejudice to his opponent for which an award of costs cannot compensate. This principle is reflected in the general discretion to extend time conferred by Order 3, rule 5, a discretion to be exercised in accordance with the requirements of justice in the particular case.

    If the second principle were followed without exception, a well-to-do plaintiff willing and able to meet orders for costs made against him could flout the rules with impunity, confident that he would suffer no penalty unless or until the defendant could demonstrate prejudice. This would circumscribe the very general discretion conferred by Order 3, rule 5, and would indeed involve a substantial re-writing of the rule.

    Save in special cases or exceptional circumstances, it can rarely be appropriate, on an overall assessment of what justice requires, to deny the plaintiff an extension (where the denial will stifle his action) because of a procedural default which, even if unjustifiable, has caused the defendant no prejudice for which he cannot be compensated by an award of costs.

  • Smith (Geoffrey) v Henniker-Major & Company
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 22 Julho 2002

    So in identifying a new cause of action the bare minimum of essential facts abstracted from the original pleading is to be compared with the minimum as it would be constituted under the amended pleading. But in applying section 35(5)(a) the court is concerned on a much less abstract level with all the evidence likely to be adduced at trial: see Goode v Martin [2002] 1 WLR 1828, 1838, approving Hobhouse LJ's observation in Lloyds Bank plc v Rogers [1996] CAT 1904:

  • Rolled Steel Products (Holdings) Ltd v British Steel Corporation
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 11 Junho 1984

    From the way they were raised by counsel and dealt with by the trial judge I was left with the impression that neither the judge nor defending counsel appreciated as fully as they should have done the need for precision and expedition when dealing with pleading points. If the parties do not know, unnecessary evidence may be got together and led or, even worse, necessary evidence may not be led. Pleadings regulate what questions may be asked of witnesses in cross-examination.

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  • Sheriff Courts (Scotland) Act 1907
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 01 de Janeiro de 1907
    ... ... 44. Section eight of the  Small Debt Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1889 , is hereby repealed, and in lieu thereof it is ... of process; and the sheriff-clerk shall endorse upon all pleadings the date when the same are lodged. The principal interlocutor sheets and ... ...
  • Act of Sederunt (Rules of the Court of Session 1994) 1994
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 01 de Janeiro de 1994
    ... ... on which the Act of Sederunt (Rules of Court, consolidation and amendment) 1965 was made) are, in so far as still in force, revoked ... (5) No ... prints for reclaiming motions) ,(e) a print of the whole pleadings and other documents required under rule 39.1(4) (print of pleadings etc ... ...
  • Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1875
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 01 de Janeiro de 1875
    ... ... principal Act ... Amendment of 36 & 37 Vict. c. 66. s. 25. as torules of law upon certain points. 10 ... action upon such terms as shall seem just, and may direct such pleadings to be delivered, or such amendments in any pleadings to be made, and ... ...
  • County Court Rules 1981
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 01 de Janeiro de 1981
    ... ... 14. Discovery and interrogatories ... 15. Amendment ... 16. Transfer of proceedings ... 17. Pre-trial review ... 18 ... plaintiff's cause or causes of action shall be contained in the pleadings or inserted in the documents for the use of the court at the hearing of ... ...
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Books & Journal Articles
  • Amendment of Pleadings
    • No. 22-3, May 1959
    • The Modern Law Review
    • No. 17-1, January 1954
    • The Modern Law Review
    ... ... 4. Written Pleadings and Opportunities for Interlocutory Applica- 5. “ Orality ” ... JAN. 1954 THE COST OF LITIGATION 9 defend," that amendment of pleadings, discovery and inspection, should normally be ... ...
    • No. 25-5, September 1962
    • The Modern Law Review
    ... ... company as a result of the court allowing an amendment to the defence. This is always an unhappy argument ... of any fault on their part, could amend their pleadings so as to join the surgeon as a co- defendant? That ... ...
    • No. 17-1, January 1954
    • The Modern Law Review
    Book reviewed in this article: The Changing Law. By The Rt. Hon. Sir Alfred Denning Justice. By Giorgio del Vecchio. Edited by A. H. Campbell Justice According to Law. By Roscoe Pound The Doctrines...
    ... ... on constitutional law to bring about the necessary amendment. It was they who educated the legal profession so ... Rule 8 (a) which require that relief claiming pleadings “shall contain a short and plain statement of ... ...
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Law Firm Commentaries
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