Undue Influence in UK Law

Leading Cases
  • National Westminster Bank Plc v Morgan
    • House of Lords
    • 07 Mar 1985

    In my judgment, therefore, the Court of Appeal erred in law in holding that the presumption of undue influence can arise from the evidence of the relationship of the parties without also evidence that the transaction itself was wrongful in that it constituted an advantage taken of the person subjected to the influence which, failing proof to the contrary, was explicable only on the basis that undue influence had been exercised to procure it.

  • Royal Bank of Scotland Plc v Etridge (No 2); Kenyon-Brown v Desmond Banks & Company (Undue Influence) (No 2); Bank of Scotland v Bennett; UCB Home Loans Corporation Ltd v Moore; National Westminster Bank Plc v Gill; Midland Bank Plc v Wallace; Barclays Bank Plc v Harris; Barclays Bank Plc v Coleman
    • House of Lords
    • 11 Oct 2001

    The burden of proving an allegation of undue influence rests upon the person who claims to have been wronged. The evidence required to discharge the burden of proof depends on the nature of the alleged undue influence, the personality of the parties, their relationship, the extent to which the transaction cannot readily be accounted for by the ordinary motives of ordinary persons in that relationship, and all the circumstances of the case.

    Proof that the complainant placed trust and confidence in the other party in relation to the management of the complainant's financial affairs, coupled with a transaction which calls for explanation, will normally be sufficient, failing satisfactory evidence to the contrary, to discharge the burden of proof. In other words, proof of these two facts is prima facie evidence that the defendant abused the influence he acquired in the parties' relationship.

    This evidential presumption shifts the onus to the dominant party and requires the dominant party, if he is to avoid a finding of undue influence, to adduce some sufficient additional evidence to rebut the presumption.

  • Barclays Bank Plc v O'Brien
    • House of Lords
    • 21 Oct 1993

    In particular, if the party asserting that he takes free of the earlier rights of another knows of certain facts which put him on inquiry as to the possible existence of the rights of that other and he fails to make such inquiry or take such other steps as are reasonable to verify whether such earlier right does or does not exist, he will have constructive notice of the earlier right and take subject to it.

  • Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Aboody
    • Court of Appeal (Civil Division)
    • 10 Nov 1988

    What notice will be requisite will depend upon the nature of the undue influence alleged. Thus, in a Class 1 case (actual undue influence), the creditor must have notice of the circumstances alleged to constitute the actual exercise of the undue influence; In a Class 2 case it must have notice of the circumstances from which the presumption of undue influence is alleged to arise.

  • CIBC Mortgages Plc v Pitt and Another
    • House of Lords
    • 21 Oct 1993

    The abuse of confidence principle is founded on considerations of general public policy viz. that in order to protect those to whom fiduciaries owe duties as a class from exploitation by fiduciaries as a class, the law imposes a heavy duty on fiduciaries to show the righteousness of the transactions they enter into with those to whom they owe such duties.

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Legislation
  • Representation of the People Act 1949
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 1 de Enero de 1949
    ....... (1) No person shall, with intent to influence persons to. give or refrain from giving their votes at a parliamentary ... Bribery, treating and undue influence . Bribery, treating and undue influence. . S-99 . Bribery. 99 ......
  • Broadcasting Act 1990
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 1 de Enero de 1990
    ......paragraph (c) of subsection (1)— ‘(c) that undue prominence is not given in its. programmes to the views and opinions of. ... General disqualification on grounds of undue influence . General disqualification on grounds of undue influence. . SCH-2.4 . ......
  • The Medical Devices (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 1 de Enero de 2019
    ...... to reciprocal interference with reasonably foreseeable external influences, medical examinations or environmental conditions; . (c) (c) any ... (k) no undue influence, including that of a financial nature, is exerted on the ......
  • The Small-scale Radio Multiplex and Community Digital Radio Order 2019
    • UK Non-devolved
    • 1 de Enero de 2019
    ...... 4 (persons disqualified on grounds that they are subject to undue influence)— . (i) in sub-paragraph (1)(a), for “relevant body” ......
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Books & Journal Articles
  • Undue influence?
    • Núm. 5-1, Febrero 2003
    • The Journal of Adult Protection
    • 40-42
    This legal column includes discussion of a recently decided Court of Appeal case relevant to vulnerable adults and a review of Fair Access to Care Services, the guidance on eligibility criteria for...
  • Undue Influence and Coercion
    • Núm. 3-2, Octubre 1939
    • The Modern Law Review
  • The Limits of Undue Influence
    • Núm. 48-5, Septiembre 1985
    • The Modern Law Review
  • The Relevance of Reverence; Undue Influence Civilian Style
    • Núm. 10-4, Diciembre 2003
    • Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law
    Persons in positions of authority are able to engender feelings of reverence in others. Such reverence, unfortunately, can lead to exploitation. For many centuries, courts and legal writers have st...
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Law Firm Commentaries
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